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  • Title: PoSA: Introduction - Rudolf Steiner as a Philosopher
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    • and he poses the question: When is an action free? And he
    • this kind of action is prompted by our surroundings, by our feelings and our
    • the action motivated by our thinking is truly free. For this kind of action
    • doctrine that man's actions are free by saying that if a stone thrown by
    • that action can be called free which has been determined by the rationality
    • action according to the idea which guides me. In so doing, my action is
    • do what seems right to me.” In strict opposition to Kant, any action
    • those actions are autonomous which originate in a law given by man's own
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter I: The Conscious Human Deed
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    • sphere of human action and thinking. One and the same thing is here declared
    • action; it is maintained that there is always a quite definite reason why,
    • out of several possible actions, we carry out a particular one.
    • necessity of its nature, and I call that compelled, the existence and action
    • necessarily is a man supposed to carry out an action when urged thereto by
    • any reason. It is only because man is conscious of his action, that he
    • of his action, but may also become conscious of the causes which guide him.
    • irresistible power over them. But is it justifiable to lump together actions
    • of this kind with those in which a man is conscious, not only of his actions
    • but also of the reasons which cause him to act? Are the actions of men
    • If there is a difference between a conscious motive of my action and an
    • unconscious impulse, then the conscious motive will result in an action
    • What does it mean to know the reason for one's action? This question
    • action in accordance with purposes and decisions.
    • thinking. Actions he has in common with other organisms. Nothing is gained
    • of action of human beings. Modern natural science loves such analogies. When
    • Here again, human actions in which man is conscious of the reasons why he
    • actions, not indeed of the donkey, but of human beings, in which between us
    • That an action cannot be free, of which the doer does not know why he
    • carries it out, is obvious. But what about an action for which we know the
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter II: The Fundamental Urge For Knowledge
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    • for knowledge is but a special instance of this dissatisfaction. If we look
    • matter, in order to transform its intentions into actions? The most clever and
    • This points out our path. We shall not speculate about the interaction of
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter III: Thinking in the Service of Understanding the World
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    • action taking place without my doing, I try to add a second action which
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter IV: The World as Perception
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    • a subjective reaction of our organisms to these movements in the external
    • on one another by attraction and repulsion. If I put my hand on a body, the
    • the interaction of the eye and the object. The latter must, therefore, be
    • object affects my representation of the eye, and from this interaction the
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter V: The Act of Knowing the World
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    • object among objects; in this respect its movements and actions are known to
    • act of will and the action of the body are not two different conditions
    • body the “objectivity” of the will. In his opinion one feels in the actions of
    • objection to these arguments is that the actions of our body come to our
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VII: Are There Limits to Knowledge?
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    • through their interaction.”
    • and motion are abstractions derived from the rich sphere of perceptions.
    • abstraction, is to him an unreal thought-picture, which the soul has put
    • to what can be perceived as actions of men, that is, the Divine Being
    • If one avoids getting lost in abstractions, it will be recognized
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter IX: The Idea of Freedom
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    • different people to different actions. Will, therefore, does not come about
    • my action will depend on whether it gives me pleasure or pain. — These
    • go for a walk in the next half-hour, determines the aim of my action. But
    • satisfaction of our lower, purely animal needs (hunger, sexual intercourse,
    • become the driving force of my action. Such feelings, for example, are shame,
    • representation or a concept can become motive for an action through mere
    • pictures of actions have become so firmly connected in our consciousness
    • impulse to action springing directly from my intuition.
    • starting-point of an action, I pass over into willing, irrespective of
    • An action is a real act of will only when a momentary impulse of action, in
    • action.
    • Another motive is the purely conceptual content of actions. This content
    • does not refer to a particular action only, as in the case of the
    • representation of one's own pleasures, but to the reason for an action
    • outer or inner authority as motive for his action, but strives to recognize
    • needs of moral life and will let this knowledge determine his actions. Such
    • actions. But when all such reasons take second place, then first and
    • idea-content of the action alone is effective as its motive.
    • principles of your actions can be valid for all men. This principle is death
    • to all individual impulses of action. How all men would act cannot
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter X: Philosophy of Freedom and Monism
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    • believe myself to be free, whereas in reality all my actions are but results
    • external compelling motives.” “Our actions as well as our thinking are
    • Being behind the world of phenomena. Then the impulse to action will also be
    • impulses of action stemming from a so-called “Being-in-itself.” According to
    • the monistic view, man's action is unfree when he obeys some perceptible
    • performed an action, it must be possible to prove the existence within the
    • man act; but if an appeal is made to causes for the action lying outside the
    • applicable only to material processes, but applicable neither to actions nor
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XI: World Purpose and Life Purpose
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    • event influences the earlier. This applies only to human action. Man carries
    • representation determine his action. The later, the deed, with the help of
    • observed only in human actions. This is therefore the only sphere in which
    • for subjective actions, is an element that easily lends itself to such
    • exception of human action. It looks for laws of nature, but not for purposes
    • in nature must not be confused with the purposes in subjective human action.
    • action — and then human action too — as being only a
    • world also, insofar as it lies outside human action, is because in that world
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XII: Moral Imagination
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    • to action. He makes an absolutely original decision. In doing so he
    • into action. But his action will belong to perceptible reality. What he brings
    • of examples, that is, by conveying quite definite particular actions to
    • As soon as the impulse to action is present in general conceptual form (for
    • necessary, our action will depend upon this knowledge. What must be
    • knowledge of them, whereas in the case of moral action we ourselves first
    • necessity, but exist through themselves. When we recognize an action to be
    • representations (impulses) on which the action is based. Freedom is
    • himself. Such a man is unfree in his action. Therefore, to be able to will what
    • thoughts, that is, against the impulses of my action. The Church makes me
    • receive from them (at the Confessional) the impulses for their actions.
    • is presented what man can experience in his actions and, through this, come
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XIII: The Value of Life
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    • Eternal striving, ceaseless craving for satisfaction which yet can never be
    • so on. Satisfaction can always be only for an infinitely short time. All the
    • dissatisfaction and suffering. If at last the blind urge is dulled, then all
    • all so-called satisfaction turns out to be nothing but illusion.
    • culture, — we have sources of happiness and satisfaction. Soberly
    • Man must recognize to the full that to pursue individual satisfaction
    • To strive after satisfaction means that the life activities go beyond the life
    • satisfaction of a desire, displeasure means its non-satisfaction. Both
    • satisfaction. Man, whose selfishness desires the grapes of pleasure, finds
    • sole purpose of bringing about His salvation through their action. Otherwise
    • satisfaction, and the enjoyment of life is thereby impaired. But the
    • of life. If only a part of the needs of a living creature find satisfaction,
    • the desire in question. We might represent this value as a fraction, of
    • denominator is the sum total of needs. This fraction has the value 1 when the
    • satisfied. The fraction becomes greater than 1 when a creature experiences
    • amount of enjoyment falls short of the sum total of desires. But the fraction
    • the pleasure of satisfaction will, as we have seen, be the greater, the
    • satisfaction in a quite definite way. When we want a pleasure which must be
    • displeasure. But because we aim toward a particular kind of satisfaction, we
    • pleasure of satisfaction can still be tasted to the full. The desire,
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XIV: Individuality and Species
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    • constituted and his actions will be determined by the character of the
  • Title: PoSA: The Consequences of Monism
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    • combination of two abstractions drawn from experience. Exactly the same is
    • the same satisfaction must also be possible, if the borrowed content is
    • the world given us, is an abstraction to which no reality corresponds. We can
    • produced, monism recognizes as abstractions borrowed from experience; it is
    • action be derived from a Beyond outside mankind. Insofar as they are
    • expression in his action are not commands projected from a Beyond into the
    • beyond the satisfaction of his natural instincts, for which Mother Nature
    • separate from the total sphere of human deeds those actions that can be
  • Title: PoSA: Second Appendix
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    • All science would be nothing but the satisfaction of idle curiosity if it did
  • Title: PoSA: Inside Dust Jacket
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    • govern my actions, after all?



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