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  • Title: PoSA: Cover Sheet
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
  • Title: PoSA: Contents
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • Thinking in the Service of Understanding the World
  • Title: PoSA: Bibliographical Note
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
  • Title: PoSA: Foreword
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • appreciation of one of the really significant thinkers of this century.
    • him from others, his enhanced experience of thinking helps him to a deeper,
  • Title: PoSA: Introduction - Rudolf Steiner as a Philosopher
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • a thinking effort, but is based on spiritual experiences. In the world of
    • the East it goes without saying that a great thinker is at the same time a
    • with his thinking, man lives in the reality of the world as a spiritual world,
    • knot and the leaf. We have to think of this fundamental design as a living,
    • part, however, can be grasped by him by means of his thinking only, and if
    • (an “anschauende Urteilskraft”); he says that the thinking itself must be
    • metamorphosis; a spiritual activity is needed, a dynamic thinking.
    • positivistic thinkers consider knowledge nothing but a mere comprising of
    • concepts or names. Thinking as such serves economic purposes exclusively,
    • of the senses itself. The physical phenomena are riddles which the thinking
    • solves; but what this thinking thus brings about, is the objective world
    • their completeness. By thinking about the objects, we develop the ideas which
    • presented to our sense organs but appears, in our own thinking, on the
    • to us to be subjective only. Man, by means of his thinking, reveals the ideal
    • Human thinking frees the ideal pure form as such; thus, man becomes a
    • creator. Without him, thinking would not exist.
    • thinking. This high evaluation of thinking originates here, in Steiner's
    • philosophy: man has his right place in the cosmos as a thinking being.
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  • Title: PoSA: Preface to the Revised Edition, 1918
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • retained by memory. For the whole manner of thinking on which this book is
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter I: The Conscious Human Deed
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • in his thinking and acting a spiritually free being, or is he compelled
    • sphere of human action and thinking. One and the same thing is here declared
    • belongs to the sad signs of the superficiality of present day thinking that
    • the only view which most of our thinking contemporaries are able to reach,
    • “Now, please, suppose that during its motion the stone thinks and
    • and all who think like him, overlook the fact that man not only is conscious
    • a thinkable ‘freedom’ of the will, which would end up in being
    • a motive is pressed upon me which to my thinking is unreasonable, then I
    • thinking. Actions he has in common with other organisms. Nothing is gained
    • of thinking? For without knowledge of the thinking activity of the soul,
    • recognize what thinking in general means, then it will also be easy to
    • become clear about the role that thinking plays in human action. As
    • “It is thinking that turns the soul, with which the animals are also
    • And this is why thinking gives to human action its characteristic stamp.
    • thinking. I shall, therefore, turn to this question next.
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter II: The Fundamental Urge For Knowledge
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • reaching out beyond it, contains. The thinker seeks the laws of phenomena,
    • and strives to penetrate with thinking what he experiences by observing.
    • which it calls spirit and matter, subject and object, or thinking and
    • “I,” he cannot but think of this “I” as belonging to
    • thinking takes place in the brain much in the same way that digestion takes
    • the ability to think. He forgets that in doing this he has merely shifted
    • the ability to think. And thus he is back again at his starting-point. How
    • The most extreme spiritualist — or rather, the thinker who, through
    • our thinking, to be the product of purely material processes, only, in turn,
    • matter and its processes are themselves the product of our thinking.
    • That is, our thinking is produced by the material processes, and these by the
    • thinking of the “I.” Lange's philosophy, in other words, is nothing
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter III: Thinking in the Service of Understanding the World
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    • Chapter III: Thinking in the Service of Understanding the World
    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • THINKING IN THE SERVICE OF UNDERSTANDING THE WORLD
    • say that we cannot think as we will, but that we must think exactly as the
    • combines with thinking.
    • Observation and thinking are the two points of departure for all
    • antitheses must be preceded by that of observation and thinking,
    • makes use of thinking. He therefore indirectly admits that for his activity
    • he presupposes thinking. Whether thinking or something else is the main
    • without thinking the philosopher can gain no knowledge of the evolution of
    • the world, is immediately clear. Thinking may play a minor part in the
    • coming into being of world phenomena, but thinking certainly plays a major
    • us, our thinking about a horse and the object horse are two separate things.
    • able to produce a corresponding object by mere thinking.
    • In sequence of time, observation even precedes thinking. For even thinking
    • an account of how thinking is kindled by an event and of how it goes beyond
    • However, as object of observation, thinking differs essentially from all
    • these objects appear within the range of my experience. But my thinking that
    • table; the thinking about the table I carry out, but I do not observe it at
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter IV: The World as Perception
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • arise through thinking. What a concept is cannot be
    • When someone sees a tree, his thinking reacts to his observation, an ideal
    • I must draw special attention to the fact that thinking is my point of
    • by means of thinking. Concepts and ideas already presuppose thinking.
    • Therefore, what I have said about the nature of thinking, that it exists
    • many instances I may have observed. Observation calls up thinking, and it is
    • thinking that then shows me how to fit one individual occurrence to another.
    • it is to desist from all thinking. For by its very nature, thinking goes
    • We must now pass from thinking itself to the being who thinks, for it is
    • through the thinker that thinking is combined with observation. Human
    • characterized human consciousness. It is the mediator between thinking and
    • him as given; insofar as he thinks, he appears to himself as active. He
    • regards what comes to meet him as object, and himself as thinking
    • subject. While he directs his thinking to the observation, he is
    • conscious of the object; while he directs his thinking to himself he is
    • thinking consciousness. For when thinking turns its attention to
    • thinking that we can define ourselves as subject and contrast ourselves with
    • objects. For this reason, thinking must never be understood as a merely
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter V: The Act of Knowing the World
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • world of my representations and cannot get beyond it. If I think that there
    • dreams. This something is thinking.
    • this standpoint can only consist in asking: How is thinking related to
    • say anything whatever about it, I can do so only with the help of thinking.
    • thinking process, and if my thinking is not applicable to the world, then
    • about it, thinking slips in.
    • usually overlook thinking (See p. 61f.). This is due to the fact that we
    • direct our attention only toward the object about which we think, but not
    • toward our thinking at the same time. Naive consciousness treats thinking as
    • from them and contemplates them. The picture which the thinker makes of the
    • picture. Whoever thinks along these lines should be asked: What gives you
    • the right to declare the world to be complete without thinking? Does the
    • world not produce thinking in the heads of men with the same necessity as it
    • plant arise when a thinking consciousness confronts it.
    • itself through thinking observation. If I receive a rosebud today, the
    • to make the detour of thinking, would be given not only a sum of visual
    • thinking.
    • perceiving and from that of thinking.
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VI: The Human Individuality
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • as entities belonging together, only through thinking which, by means of
    • thinking also becomes active through me. A member of my thought-system, a
    • whose power of thinking is well developed, but whose ability to perceive
    • things. The unthinking traveller and the scholar living in abstract
    • thinking, to the concept, but we relate it also to our own subjectivity, to
    • Thinking and feeling correspond to the twofold nature of our
    • being, which we have already considered. Thinking is the element
    • Our thinking unites us with the world; our feeling leads us back into
    • ourselves, and this makes us individuals. If we were merely thinking and
    • saturated with reality than is our thinking contemplation of the world. But
    • the universal nature of thinking where what is individual ultimately
    • connection with the individual who thinks them. There are others whose
    • the world. His concepts link themselves to his perceptions. He will think
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VII: Are There Limits to Knowledge?
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • from the two spheres: perceiving and thinking. As we have seen, it is our
    • perception and the concept gained by thinking, into the complete thing. If
    • particular thing can be given us only as perception. Thinking then overcomes
    • dualistic thinker should be unable to find the connection between a
    • the dualistic thinker usually maintains that the content of this concept is
    • thinks that the imperceptible atoms of matter produce
    • thinking can discover. They exist in indivisible unity with these laws. Our
    • cognition. And it takes them from the element of thinking, in itself
    • perceiving and thinking.
    • perceiver refrains from thinking, which cancels all separation and shows it
    • principles which can be discovered by thinking seem too airy for the
    • He thinks of the soul as a fine kind of physical matter which, in special
    • add to objects by thinking is mere thoughts about the objects. Thought adds
    • addition to the ideal evidence of his thinking, the naive man demands the
    • God who is given through thinking always remains a God merely “thought.”
    • value is attached to the evidence of thinking, but only to the Divine Nature
    • sense-reality, and finally so, too, the naive man thinks of the Divine Being.
    • imperceptible one which he thinks of on the analogy of the former.
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VIII: The Factors of Life
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • subject, or “I,” over against the objects. This something is thinking, and
    • the ideal definitions are the concepts and ideas. Thinking, therefore, first
    • of thinking. This relationship to oneself by means of thoughts is a
    • existence. Through it we feel ourselves to be thinking beings. This
    • thinking, lives within the universal life of the world; through thinking the
    • something far more real than can be reached by thinking. He sees in the will
    • contrast to thinking, which must first grasp the process in concepts. What
    • are both of the opinion that we have two sources of knowledge: thinking and
    • flows from the source of thinking; therefore the two forms of knowledge,
    • perceiving and thinking, remain standing side by side without a higher
    • experienced cannot be grasped by thinking. In other words: mysticism of
    • observe and grasp the nature of thinking lies in the fact that its nature
    • corpse of living thinking. If this abstract alone is considered, then it is
    • who really penetrates to the life within thinking will reach the insight
    • time alive experience, of the life within thinking, and no longer will
    • other human soul-activity is so easily underestimated as thinking. Will and
    • Thinking all too easily leaves the soul cold in recollection; the soul-life
    • This diving down is done by a power that flows within the thinking activity
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter IX: The Idea of Freedom
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • thinking according to the perception. The connection of the perception with
    • an observation leads to the insight that thinking can be directly
    • experienced as a self-contained reality. In order to explain thinking as
    • conscious thinking which is being observed, underestimate what can be seen
    • when thinking is observed without prejudice. During his observation of
    • thinking, the observer lives directly within a spiritual, self-sustaining
    • to man, can do this in his own self-sustaining thinking.
    • When thinking is observed, two things coincide which elsewhere must
    • before him in thinking, then he will also recognize that in the perception only
    • permeating the perception with thinking. Then in what arises in consciousness
    • as thinking, he will also see not a shadowy copy of some reality, but spiritual
    • sphere of pure spirit. Only through an intuition can the reality of thinking
    • Only when, by observing thinking without prejudice, one has wrestled one's
    • way through to recognizing the truth that the nature of thinking is intuitive,
    • of thinking. Quite obvious facts seem to contradict this
    • at first. For ordinary experience, human thinking only takes place connected
    • nothing from the organization plays into thinking as such. And then it is
    • organization to thinking. For this organization has no effect at all on
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter X: Philosophy of Freedom and Monism
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • human soul's participation in this reality through thinking, but who
    • unthinking, acting according to purely mechanical laws, as materialism
    • thinks of it, then out of itself it must also produce, by purely mechanical
    • external compelling motives.” “Our actions as well as our thinking are
    • of thinking is spoken of as having a general significance of equal value for
    • thinking, they come to expression in each human consciousness in an
    • freedom in their true light. For those who think of concepts as merely drawn
    • reality, thinking will remain merely a subjective human activity; for the one
    • man's activity of thinking. To the first person, cognition is
    • not recognize that thinking can be experienced, or take it to be an activity
    • referred to. I am well aware that there are thinkers like the
    • says: “Our conduct, like our thinking, is necessitated,” expresses a concept
    • to existence; and if he thinks his concepts through, he will have to think
    • inconsistency which is so often the result of a thinking not carried
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XI: World Purpose and Life Purpose
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • that factor in the blossom which he confirms in it through his thinking. The
    • we discover by means of our thinking, it follows that the planned concord
    • No one who thinks through without prejudice what is
    • view is similar to that of those thinkers who, by rejecting this concept,
    • natural process. The fact that thinking is presented here as a purely
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XII: Moral Imagination
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • means of thinking from the totality of his world of ideas. The reason an
    • thinker, will not be considered here. But it should not occur to any
    • nebula. In other words, this means: if the evolutionist thinks consistently,
    • products of thinking do not enter the field of observation,
    • so long as thinking goes on, they may well become objects of
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XIII: The Value of Life
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • Schopenhauer presents matters differently. He thinks of the world's
    • One whose view more or less inclines in the direction of thinkers like Eduard
    • mediated by thinking, of concept and perception (and a feeling is a
    • astray in your brooding; think things through once more. But if there comes
    • the three days when I do eat is not thereby diminished. But I have to think of
    • carried by intuitive thinking; at the same time it is true that an impulse
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XIV: Individuality and Species
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • sphere of freedom (in thinking and doing) begins, there the possibility of
    • conceptual content which man, through thinking, must bring into connection
    • think, cannot be deduced from any concept of a species; this depends singly
    • the typical way of thinking and free from a will based on the species, there
    • the perception by means of thinking. In the case of all other objects the
  • Title: PoSA: The Consequences of Monism
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • refuses to seek the origin of the world accessible to perceiving and thinking,
    • the unity that thinking observation — which can be experienced —
    • unity behind the one sought by thinking observation, thereby shows only that
    • he does not recognize the agreement between what is found by thinking and
    • only so long as what is perceived is not woven by thinking into the network
    • experience of thinking. Thinking destroys the appearance due to perceiving,
    • embraces the content of our subjective personality. Thinking shows us
    • thinking. Science has striven to recognize perceptions as realities by
    • connections ascertained by human thinking had only a subjective
    • grasp the connection of things through strictly applied thinking is that an
    • It was not realized that thinking encompasses both subjective and objective
    • attained — with the help of thinking — in order to add it to
    • recognize that the concept is something real, thinks of it only in that
    • concepts. The abstract concept does not contain reality, but thinking
    • actually experience. By contrast, monism shows that thinking is neither
    • reality. When we observe with thinking, we carry out a process that in
    • itself belongs in the sequence of real occurrences. By means of thinking we
    • is satisfied by this reality, because he knows that thinking has the power
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  • Title: PoSA: First Appendix
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • of the philosophers, rather than in the natural sequence of human thinking
    • their whole way of thinking, they have created difficulties which do not
    • The problem to which I refer is this: There are thinkers who are of the
    • stare at all this; it sets my thinking activity in motion. To the extent that
    • I confront the other personality with my thinking, the perceptions become
    • thinking, I am obliged to say that they are not at all what they appear to
    • me — as a thinking being — to extinguish my own thinking and to put
    • in its place the thinking of what is revealed. And this thinking
    • I grasp as an experience that is like the experience of my own thinking. I have
    • really perceived the thinking of the other. For the direct perceptions, which
    • extinguish themselves as appearances to the senses, are grasped by my thinking,
    • consists in the fact that the thinking of the other takes the place of my
    • thinking. The division between the two spheres of consciousness is actually
    • what occurs in the union of thinking with perception. Instances like the
    • literature. Thinkers should seek the path to unprejudiced observation in
    • forced to think of other people too — absurd though it is — as
    • and he must, therefore, think of what he has before him as intermittent.
    • continuous when it is permeated with what thinking elaborates. Therefore:
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  • Title: PoSA: Second Appendix
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • technique. Abstract thinking thereby gains concrete, individual life. Ideas
  • Title: PoSA: Editorial and Reference Notes
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
  • Title: PoSA: Back Cover
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
  • Title: PoSA: Inside Dust Jacket
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    • the ability to think and act independently - as a possibility for modern
    • presence or living thinking - new thinking - by which all human activity
    • Steiner, outstanding thinker of the 20th century, answers these and
    • book is a milestone in the development of modern creative thinking.



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