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Rudolf Steiner Archive Section Name Rudolf Steiner Archive and e.Lib

Second Scientific Lecture-Course: Warmth Course

Schmidt Number: S-4017

On-line since: 22nd May, 2002

Lecture IX

Stuttgart, March 9th, 1920.

My dear friends,

The fact that we have spoken of the transformation of energy and force assumed by modern physics makes it necessary for us to turn our attention to the problem of indicating what really lies behind these transformations. To aid in this, I wish to perform another experiment to be ranged alongside of yesterday's. In this experiment we will perform work through the use of another type of energy than the one that is immediately evident in the work performed. We will, as it were, bring about in another sphere the same sort of thing that we did yesterday when we turned a wheel, put it in motion and thus performed work. For the turning of the wheel can be applied in any machine, and the motion utilized. We will bring about the turning of a wheel simply by pouring water on these paddle, and this water by virtue of its weight will bring the paddle wheel into motion. The force that somehow or other exists in the running water is transformed into the rotational energy of the wheel. We will let the water flow into this trough in order to permit it to form a liquid surface as it did in previous experiments. What we show is really this, that by forming a liquid surface below we make the motion of the wheel slower than it was before. Now, it will slow down in proportion to the degree to which the lower level approaches the upper level. Thus we can say: if we indicate the total height of the water from the point “a” here where it flows onto the wheel by “h,” and the perpendicular distance to the liquid surface by “h1” then we can state the difference as h - h1. We can further state that the work available for the wheel is connected in some way with the difference between the two levels. (The sense in which this is so we will seek in our further considerations.) Yesterday in our experiment we also had a kind of difference in levels, t - t1. For you will recollect we denoted the heat of the surroundings at the beginning of our experiments by t1 and the heat we pr