A, ‘ah’, as in father
E, ‘a’, as in mate
I, ‘ee’, as in meet
0, ‘o’, as in ought
U, ‘oo’, as in moot
Ö, ‘ir’, similar in birth
Ü,‘eu’, similar in feud
AI, ‘ei’, as in height
AU, ‘ow’, as in how
W, ‘v’, as in volume
The above are approximate
English equivalents (for example, ‘a’ and is actually
a dipthong). The vowels of German resemble Scots pronunciation of English,
rather than that of some English as spoken in America, Australia, New
Zealand, South Africa, and so on. (The eurythmy gestures for the vowels,
it should be noted, are archetypal gestures, standing behind local and
national variations of pronunciation, including those of the German
To avoid possible confusion
in the text, phonetic spelling has been reproduced in italics. In Lecture
4, where a poem by Goethe is discussed, some German sounds are also
given, with phonetic reminders as listed above.
AP Anthroposophie Press, New York.
GA Gesamtausgabe; Bibliographic Survey numbers of
Steiner's complete works (Dornach 1961).
MS Manuscript translation awaiting funding for possible
OUP Oxford University Press, Oxford.
RSP Rudolf Steiner Press, London.
Tb Taschenbuch, paperback edition, Dornach, Switzerland.