[ Notes: Karma of Untruthfulness, Volume One ]
Karma of Untruthfulness I
- ‘Wisdom lies solely in truth’:
Goethes Naturwissenschaftliche Schriften
(Goethe's Scientific Works), 5 volumes, edited by Rudolf Steiner in
Kürschners Deutsche National-Litteratur,
GA 1a-e, Volume 5: Sprüche in
Prosa, p.360. Chosen in 1913 as the motto for the Statutes of the
- ‘Then words come in ...’:
J. W. von Goethe,
Part One. Study (Mephistopheles). Trans. Philip Wayne, Penguin Classics,
- Rudolf Kjellén,
Die Ideen von 1914. Eine weltgeschichtliche Perspektive
(The Ideas of 1914 in the Perspective of World History), Leipzig 1915.
- Rosa Mayreder,
(Phases of the War), in
p.648ff. On Rosa Mayreder, see Rudolf Steiner
Steinerbooks, Blauvelt 1977, and
Briefe Band I,
1881-1890 (Letters), GA 38, Dornach 1984.
- I have told you before:
e.g. in Munich on 18 March 1916 in
Mitteleuropa zwischen Ost und West
(Central Europe between East and West), GA 174a, Dornach 1971, and
in Berlin on 28 March 1916 in
Things of the Present and of the Past in the Spirit of Man.
English text available in typescript only.
- by means of maps:
Arthur Polzer-Hoditz says in his book
Zurich-Leipzig-Vienna 1928, p.19 (Note): ‘I conclude that the
breaking up of the Habsburg monarchy had long been a foregone
conclusion among those politicians who — by the way —
after the collapse of the Central Powers intended to share amongst
themselves the chief roles in world politics. I refer in particular
to a map showing the division of Europe, which was published by the
Englishman Labouchère in his satirical weekly journal
in 1890 (the Christmas Number dated December 25 1890, not the regular
number for that week which is also dated December 25), that is, twenty-four
years before the outbreak of the World War. This map is virtually
identical with that of present-day Europe: Austria as a monarchy
has disappeared and made way for a republican member of the League
of Nations. Bohemia is an independent state in the incidental shape
of Czechoslovakia. Germany is squeezed into her present confines
and split into small republics. Where Russia would be is written
“Russian Desert.” Countries for socialist
experiments.’ See also C. G. Harrison
The Transcendental Universe. Six Lectures on Occult Science,
Theosophy and the Catholic Faith,
London 1894, Lecture 2: ‘A powerful empire which unites under a
despotic government a number of local communes — Russia. The
remains of a kingdom — Poland, whose only cohesive force is
its religion, and which will be ultimately reabsorbed in the
Russian Empire in spite of it. A number of tribes who, oppressed by
the alien Turk, have thrown off the yoke, and have been
artificially consolidated into little states, whose independence
will last as long as, and no longer than, the next great European
war ... The Russian Empire must die that the Russian people may
live, and the realization of the dreams of the Pan-Slavists will
indicate that the sixth Aryan sub-race has begun to live its own
intellectual life, and is no longer in its period of
- ‘Slav Welfare Committee’:
Quoted after S. Rado
Der Sturz des Zarismus
(The Fall of Tsarism), Leipzig 1915.
- Nikola Pasic,
1846-1926. From 1903 till his death he was a leading statesman in
- ‘On the instruction ...’:
Quoted after Rado (as above p.16f).
- ‘Memoires of ... King Carol’:
Aus dem Leben des Königs Karl von Rumänien
(From the Life of King Carol of Romania),
Recorded by an Eye Witness. Four volumes, Stuttgart 1894-1900.
- Grand Duke Nikolai:
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, 1856-1929, uncle of the last Tsar;
until 1915 commander in chief of the Russian army. Quoted after
Rado (as above p.20).
Prince Alexander Michailovich Gorchakov, 1798-1883; from 1856 Foreign
Minister; 1862-1882 Prime Minister. The Russo-Turkish war took
place from April 1877 to March 1878 (Treaty of San Stefano). Letter
from Alexander II to King Carol quoted after Rado (as above
- Export figures:
Quoted after Sir Roger Casement:
Irland, Deutschland und die Freiheit der Meere und andere
Munich 1916, p.129. (This was written in German and does not appear
to have been translated into English. Tr.)
- Dr Jakob Ruchti:
Zur Geschichte des Kriegsausbruches. Nach den amtlichen Akten der
Königlich Grossbritannischen Regierung dargestellt.
(On the History of the Outbreak of the War Based on the Official
Records of His Majesty's British Government), Bern 1916. The Second Edition,
1917, was reviewed by Rudolf Steiner in the
Neue Badische Landeszeitung,
Mannheim, No. 193, 17 April 1917. (C. S. Picht:
Das literarische Lebenswerk Rudolf Steiners,
No. 743). On page 47f Ruchti writes: ‘On 3 August, in the House of
Commons, Grey gave his long speech to
prepare people's minds for the English declaration of war. He
suppressed Germany's latest suggestions and calculated that
England would suffer scarcely more damage by joining in than by
remaining on the sidelines. On 6 August Prime Minister Asquith
spoke to Parliament to justify the declaration of war. He based his
justification on the suggestions made by the German Chancellor on
29 July, rejected with deep moral indignation the request of the
German Government, refrained (as his “honourable
friend” Grey had done) from mentioning the negotiations with
the German ambassador of 1 August, and deliberately gave
Parliament, the English people and, indeed, the whole world, a
false version of the facts.’
- Georges Clemenceau,
1841-1929. French Prime Minister 1917-1920.
- William Archer,
1856-1924. Scottish writer, translator of Ibsen, distinguished
journalist and critic.
- Georg Brandes,
1842-1927. The article,
(GA291/English/RSPC1935-Blind Neutrality), was published in Internationafe Rundschau,
Zurich 1916, p.633ff. It was written in reply to William Archer's
GA291/English/RSPC1935-Blind Neutrality. An Open Letter to Doctor George Brandes,
London 1916. The following quotations are taken from this article.
- Sir Edward Grey,
1862-1933. British Foreign Minister 1905-1916.
- ‘tiniest Little Red Bird Fourth Class’:
The Order of the Red Eagle.
- Clemenceau-Brandes Seat:
The beautiful Silesian hermitage is Schloss
Strzebowitz in Austrian Silesia (later Czechoslovakia), where
Rudolf Steiner once paid a visit to the owner, the poetess Maria
- interview in the Daily Telegraph:
See Fürst Bülow,
(Memorabilia), Berlin 1930, Volume 2, p.350ff, containing a facsimile
of 28 October 1908.
- Prince Karl Max Lichnowsky
Meine Londoner Mission
(My Mission to London), Zurich 1918.
- ‘War brings ... the horrors of war’:
Gedanken während der Zeit des Krieges. Für Deutsche und
diejenigen, die nicht glauben sie hassen zu müssen
(Thoughts during Wartime. For Germans and those who do not believe
they have to hate them), Berlin 1915 in
Aufsätze über die Dreigliederung des sozialen Organismus
und zur Zeitlage 1915-1921
(Essays on the Threefold Social Organism and on
the Social Situation in 1915-1921), GA 24, Dornach 1961. The actual
sentence reads: ‘The existence of this confusion makes us
want to understand why so many people cannot grasp the fact that
war in itself brings with it the horrors and sufferings of war, and
why they condemn their opponents as “barbarians” when
bitter necessity forces them to make use of modern
- Gotthilf Vöhringer:
Meine Erlebnisse während des Krieges in Kamerun und in englischer
(My Experiences during the War in the Cameroons and in English Captivity),
lecture in Hamburg 1915.
- Henri Lambert:
Zurich I November 1915.
- shark negotiating for a peace treaty:
Byron called the union between England and Ireland a
‘union between the shark and his prey’. After Sir Roger
Casement, as above p.96.
- lawyers who have become presidents:
The reference is to Raymond Poincaré
(1860-1934). He was French Prime Minister several times and
President of the Republic from 1913-1920. There may be gaps in the
shorthand report at this point. On Maeterlinck see Rudolf
Steiner's lecture of 5 November 1914 in
Aus schicksaltragender Zeit,
GA 64, Dornach 1959.
- Alexander von Gleichen-Russwurm,
1865-1947, grandson of Schiller.
Menschenrechte und Menschenwürde
(Human Rights and Human Dignity), in
Braunschweig 1916, p.239ff. Rudolf Steiner also quotes
Gleichen-Russwurm in the lecture of 16 June 1916 in
‘Ascension and Pentecost’,
The Festivals and their Meaning III,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1981.
- Charles Webster Leadbeater,
1847-1934. English theosophist.
- dispute ... with Mrs Besant:
Annie Besant, 1847-1933. President of the
Theosophical Society from 1907. In 1913 the German Section, of
which Rudolf Steiner was the General Secretary, separated from the
Theosophical Society. This had been prepared inwardly for some time
and was now outwardly brought about by the exclusion of the German
Section. Then followed the foundation of the Anthroposophical
- Count Richard von Pfeil,
1846-1916. Officer and writer. Author of
Neun Jahre in russischen Diensten unter Alexander III
(Nine Years in Russian Service under Alexander III), 1907.
The quotation is taken from Alexander Redlich
Der Gegensatz zwischen Österreich-Ungarn und Russland
(The Conflict between Austria-Hungary and Russia),
Stuttgart 1915, p.19.
- Helena Petrovna Blavatsky,
1831-1891. See Rudolf Steiner
The Occult Movement in the Nineteenth Century,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1973, and C. G. Harrison
The Transcendental Universe
(as above).. In Lecture 1 the latter writes
‘... I gathered the following information: ... That Koot
Hoomi ... is a treacherous scoundrel in the pay of the Russian
Government, who, for a time, succeeded in deceiving Madame
Blavatsky, but whose true character and personality she at length
discovered.’ Also in the appendix to Lecture 1: ‘Now we
know from Colonel Olcott's
People from the other World
that in 1874 Madame Blavatsky's “master” (or control)
professed himself to be the “spirit” of a bold
buccaneer called John King who flourished in the seventeenth
century ... Moreover it was Colonel Olcott himself who first
suggested (p.454) that “John King” was no deceased
buccaneer but the creation of an “Order which, while
depending for its results upon unseen agents, has its existence
upon earth amongst men”.’ And again from Lecture 1:
‘She then disappeared, and the next thing that was heard was
that a certain Madame Blavatsky had been expelled from an American
brotherhood for an offence against the constitution of the United
States, and had gone to British India in order to carry out a
certain threat which it would seem there was a fair prospect of her
putting into execution.’
- physician in Vienna:
Moriz Benedikt, 1835-1920. Benedikt describes the fall of Voidarevich in
Aus meinem Leben
(From my Life), Vienna 1906, p.273ff. The ruler on
whom Voidarevich's articles had a great influence was
Alexander III of Russia.
- Milan Obrenovich IV,
1845-1901. Ruled 1868-1889. From 1882 King of Serbia.
- Nikola (Nikita) I
1841-1921. Prince, later King, of Montenegro. Ruled 1860-1918.
- Russian Foreign Minister:
Prince Alexander Gorchakov, 1798-1883. Foreign Minister 1856-1882.
- Alexander I von Battenberg,
1857-1893. Prince of Bulgaria. Reigned
1878-1886. Abdicated 7 September 1886.
- Richard Cobden,
1804-1865. English political economist. Advocate of free trade,
- John Bright,
1811-1889. English Quaker, politician, minister.
- ‘Testament of Peter the Great’:
Peter I, Tsar of All Russia, 1672-1725. See Ludwig Polzer-Hoditz
Der Kampf gegen den Geist und das Testament Peters des Grossen
(The Battle against the Spirit and the Testament of Peter the Great),
Stuttgart 1922. The ‘Testament’ is today regarded as a
Polish forgery of Napoleonic times (see Wittram
Peter der Grosse, der Eintritt Russlands in die Neuzeit
(Peter the Great and the Entry of Russia into Modern Times),
- during a course:
At the Workers' Educational Establishment in Berlin.
- Rudolf Christoph Eucken,
1846-1926. German idealistic philosopher.
- Mitrofanoff a history professor:
Rudolf Steiner quotes here from Hans Delbrück
Die Motive und Ziele der russischen Politik nach zwei Russen
(Professor von Mitrofanoff und Fürst Kotschubey)
(The Motives and Aims of Russian Politics According to Two Russians,
Professor von and Prince Kotshubey), Berlin 1915. It's letter is
dated 12 April 1914.
- ‘ “Nibelung” by the Spree’:
The River Spree flows through Berlin.
- Take Ionescu,
1858-1922. 1912-1914 Romanian Minister for the Interior.
- Hermann Bahr,
(The Voice), Berlin 1916.
Novel by Hermann Bahr, Berlin 1916. See also Rudolf
Steiner ‘Ascension and Pentecost’
The Festivals and their Meaning III.
- Julius Wiesner,
1838-1916. Austrian botanist.
- Wilhelm Ostwald,
1857-1932. German chemist. Nobel Prize 1909.
- Gustav von Schmoller,
1838-1917. German economist.
- Charles Richet,
1850-1935. French physiologist. Nobel Prize 1913.
- Sigmund Freud,
1856-1939, Austrian neurologist. Founder of psychoanalysis.
- Archduke Franz Ferdinand of
Austria, born 1863, assassinated at Sarajevo on 28 June
- been speaking ... in various branches:
See Rudolf Steiner
Destinies of Individuals and of Nations,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1986, Lectures 2 and 5. Also
Cosmic Being and Egohood
Lecture 3 (English text available in typescript only).
During a lecture to the branch in Stuttgart on 30 September
1914, Rudolf Steiner said: ‘I have often stressed how
different things are, here on the physical plane, and how on the
spiritual plane the opposite is often revealed. Yet even I was
surprised when I was permitted to compare this individuality before
death with the state he entered after the assassination: This
personality had been transformed into a cosmic force.’ In
Die geistigen Hintergründe des Ersten Weltkrieges
(The Spiritual Background to the First World War),
GA 174b, Dornach 1974.
- Die neuen Menschen
(The New People), play by Hermann Bahr, Zurich 1887.
- one-act play:
La Marquesa d'Amaegui,
by Hermann Bahr, Zurich 1888.
- Die grosse Sünde
(The Great Sin), play by Hermann Bahr, Zurich 1889.
- Georges Ernest
Boulanger, 1837-1891. French general and nationalist
- Alphonse Daudet,
1840-1897. French writer.
- Café Griensteidl:
See Note to Number Seven, Rudolf Steiner Briefe, Band I, Note 4,
- Nikolaus Lenau,
1802-1850. Austrian poet.
- Anastasius Grün,
1806-1876. Austrian poet.
- Karl Kraus, 1874-1936.
Austrian publisher of the journal
Die demolierte Literatur
(Literature Demolished), Vienna 1897.
- Maurice Barrès,
1862-1923. French nationalist writer.
- book on expressionism:
- Germans, Czechs, Slavonians:
Not mentioned here are the Slovenes.
- Archduke Rudolf,
born 1858. The cause of his death at Mayerling in 1889 was never fully
- secret brotherhood:
The ‘Omladina’. See next lecture.
- Friedrich Nietzsche,
1844-1900. German philosopher, one of the most influential thinkers
of modern times. The sentence quoted is from
Thus Spake Zarathustra,
Fourth Part. ‘The Intoxicated Song.’ Trans. R J Hollingdale,
Penguin Classics, London 1986.
The statements about Serbia in this lecture are taken from an essay by
Der Mord als Mittel der Politik in Serbien
(Murder as a Political Tool in Serbia)
1915, p.241ff. Regarding ‘Omladina’
and ‘Narodna Odbrana’ see also Lennhoff
Politische Geheimbünde im Völkergeschehen
(Secret Political Societies in International Relations), Berlin 1930.
- Michael Obrenovich III,
1823-1868. From 1839 Prince of Serbia. Banished 1842.
Returned to the throne 1860. Assassinated 1868.
- Jovan Ristic,
1831-1899. Influential politician, author of works in several
volumes about Serbia's foreign affairs and her diplomatic
history in the second half of the nineteenth century.
- Alexander Karageorgevich,
1806-1885. After the banishment of Michael
Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia 1842-1858. In 1858 Milosh
Obrenovich I was returned to the throne for two years until 1860.
His son, Michael Obrenovich III, succeeded him for a second term
from 1860 until his assassination in 1868. He was succeeded in turn
by his first cousin once removed, Milan Obrenovich IV, from 1868 to
1889, who abdicated in favour of his son Alexander Obrenovich V,
retiring to live chiefly in Vienna.
- Nikola Pasic:
See Note 8, Lecture One.
- ‘A confederation of all the Serbs ...’:
After Mandl (above).
- Alexander III of Russia,
1845-1894. Crowned 1881.
- Serbia's war with Bulgaria:
- Draga Masin,
1867-1903. Widow of an engineer. Lady-in-waiting to the
King's mother, Queen Natalie of Serbia, and mistress of
Alexander Obrenovich V. Alexander married her in 1900 and made her
Queen of Serbia. Both were assassinated on 11 June 1903. See Dr
Das Ende der Obrenovitch. Beiträge zur Geschichte Serbiens
(The End of the Obrenovich Dynasty. Notes on the History of Serbia
1897-1900), Leipzig 1905.
- Murder of Alexander Obrenovich V:
See Mandl p.254 (above).
- ‘The Jew will be burnt!’:
Nathan der Weise
(Nathan the Wise), Act IV, Scene 2.
See Note 23, Lecture One.
- David Lloyd George,
1863-1945. British minister from 1905. Prime Minister
- Lord Archibald Rosebery,
1847-1929. British Foreign Minister 1886 and 1882.
Prime Minister 1894. The remark was made in 1893 and is quoted
Deutschland und der nächste Krieg
(Germany and the Next War), Stuttgart
1912, p.82. Bernhardi is in turn quoting Hanotaux
Fachoda et le partage de l'Afrique,
- taught in some secret brotherhoods:
See Note 6, Lecture One.
- Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux,
1853-1944. French statesman and historian. The quotations are from
Fachoda et le partage de l'Afrique
as quoted by Bernhardi (p. 83 and 84, above).
- Fichte's speeches:
Reden an die deutsche Nation
(Speeches to the German Nation),
Tübingen 1859. In the thirteenth speech on p.202 Fichte says:
‘Equally foreign to Germans is the freedom of the high seas,
which is so frequently proclaimed today, whatever the intention, be
it genuine freedom or merely the capability of excluding all
- Sergei Dmitrievich Sasonov,
1861-1927. Russian Foreign Minister 1910-1916.
- extensive circles:
In confirmation and illustration of what Rudolf Steiner says here
about England it is most revealing to read a short work by the
English Minister Lord Morley, who resigned on the outbreak of war:
Memorandum on Resignation,
- Edward VII,
1841-1910. King of England 1901-1910.
- Two people spoke to one another:
Conference between the Russian Foreign Minister
Izvolski and the Austrian Foreign Minister Baron Aehrenthal in
Buchlau. Paul Herre in
Weltpolitik und Weltkatastrophe
(World Politics and World Catastrophe), Berlin 1916, maintains that
Izvolski obtained Austrian agreement to the opening of the
Dardanelles (p.91). Prince Bülow in
(Memorabilia), Volume Two, states that he received reports on the Buchlau
conference both from Izvolski and from Aehrenthal. Izvolski felt he
had been tricked by Aehrenthal, hence his hatred for him. It is
noteworthy that Jaurès, in a speech given shortly before his
death, said: ‘Herr von Aehrenthal made a gesture which
Izvolski took to signify “yes”, whereupon he permitted
Austria the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. When Russia then
requested Austria's reciprocation (agreement to the opening
of the Dardanelles), Aehrenthal answered: “What are you
saying; I never said anything!” ’ (See
Geneva, Volume One, 1916, No.4). A further facet appears in a book
published in Paris during the war: Jacques Prolo,
Une politique ... Un crime! Le meurtre de Jean Jaurès.
Here it is maintained that immediately before the outbreak of war
Jaurès is supposed to have said in the lobbies of the Cabinet
that France was reeling into war because Monsieur Izvolski, the
Russian ambassador in Paris, had not received the forty million
which had been promised him while he was still Foreign Minister by
Baron von Aehrenthal for Russia's agreement to
Austria's annexation of Bosnia. (Daniels,
(Prussian Annals), Berlin, Volume 164, p.123.)
- Aleksandr Petrovich Izvolski,
1856-1919. Russian Foreign Minister 1906-1910,
thereafter ambassador in Paris.
- for England's part:
This is confirmed by Lord Morley in the Memorandum
mentioned in Note 19. According to Morley, even the English Cabinet
was for the most part in favour of neutrality during the early days
- a German had a conversation:
Details not known.
As above, pp. 105 and 113 (See Note 14).
- important events:
On 12 December 1916, via a speech in the Reichstag by Bethmann-Hollweg,
the Central Powers offered a suggestion for peace negotiations which
was rejected by the Allies. See Lecture Thirteen.
- Brooks Adams,
1848-1927. American historian.
Law of Civilization and Decay,
1895, with an essay by Theodore Roosevelt.
- Theodore Roosevelt,
1858-1919. President of the United States of America 1901-1909.
- Goethe's saying:
‘Life is her most wonderful discovery and death her artifice
through which she may have much life’, from the hymn
(Nature) in Goethe's Scientific Works.
(See Note 1, Lecture One),
Volume 2: Zur Naturwissenschaft im Allgemeinen, p.8.
- Henry VIII,
1491-1547. King of England. See Rudolf Steiner
Things of the Present and of the Past in the Spirit of Man,
Lecture 8. English text available in typescript only.
- Sir Thomas More,
1478-1535. English saint and humanist. Lord Chancellor 1529-1532.
- Giovanni Pico della Mirandola,
1463-1494. Italian philosopher and scholar. See Rudolf Steiner
Things of the Present and of the Past in the Spirit of Man
Lecture 5. English text available in typescript only.
De optimo statu rei publicae deque nova insula Utopia,
trans Paul Turner, Penguin Classics, London 1986.
742-814. King of the Franks 768-814, and Western (Holy Roman) Emperor
- Dante Alighieri,
1265-1321. The greatest poet of Italy.
De Monarchia. Divine Comedy,
Purgatory 7, V.91-96.
- Rudolf of Habsburg,
1218-1291; German King from 1273.
- Venice devoured the patriarchate of Aquileia:
- Battle of Solferino:
24 June 1859.
- Camillo Benso Cavour,
1810-1861. Piedmontese statesman.
- I can only give you an outline:
Among the source material used by Rudolf Steiner
for this lecture was the booklet
(Italy). This is Booklet 9 of the
Volume 12, June 1915, which was devoted to Italy's preparations
for entering the war on the side of the Entente.
- Victor Emmanuel II,
1820-1878. King of Italy from 1861.
- Francesco Crispi,
1818-1901. Italian Prime Minister 1887-1896.
- when France took over Tunisia:
France annexed Tunisia in May 1881. See Kjellén
Dreibund und Dreiverband
(Triple Alliance and Triple Entente), Munich
1921. p.60ff. Triple Entente: Alliance between France and Russia
(March 1894), France and England (the Entente Cordiale, 1904), and
England and Russia (August 1907).
- friendly gentleman:
According to Marie Steiner, who was present, this was Professor
Angelo de Gubernatis.
- ‘reconquering of Italy by means of hunger’:
See Kjellén, as above p.61.
- speech made in 1888:
Bismarck's speech in the Reichstag on 6 February 1888. See Rudolf Steiner
Aus schicksaltragender Zeit,
GA 64, Dornach 1959, Lecture entitled
‘Das Volk Schillers und Fichtes’.
- publications of Loiseaux, Chéradame and others:
Le Pangermanism, ce qu'il fut ce qu'il est,
Paris 1921. André Chéradame
L'Europe et la question de l'Autriche au seuil du XXe siècle,
- Wilhelm Oberdank:
Student, Irredentist. Attempted to assassinate Emperor Franz Josef
on 17 August 1882 in Trieste. Oberdank was executed. Carducci
celebrated him in an ode.
- Grand Orient de France:
The central organization of French Freemasonry.
- Giosuè Carducci,
1835-1907, in his essay
L'opera di Dante
(The Works of Dante), 1888.
Prose die Giosuè Carducci,
Bologna 1905, p.1131.
- the Britons, the Gauls, the Germans:
‘Before the Roman conquest, Gaul, Britain and
Germany were not nations, they had only tribal existence. Their
conquest and incorporation into the Roman Empire marked the period
of infancy. Roman law was their nurse and protector. To the nurse,
succeeded the tutor. The destruction of the Roman Empire and the
rise of the Papacy marked the period of childhood, as the beginning
of their intellectual life ... The manhood of modern Europe dates
from the sixteenth century.’ From C. G. Harrison, as above,
- Balkan Slavs:
See Note 7, Lecture One.
Also C. G. Harrison, as above, Lecture 2:
‘We need not pursue the subject further than to say that the
national character [of the Slav peoples] will enable them to carry out
experiments in Socialism, political and economical, which would
present innumerable difficulties in Western Europe’.
- system of sounds.
Voiced plosives (d, b, g), unvoiced plosives (t, p, k), aspirated
sounds (ph, ch, etc.). Regarding Grimm's Law see also Rudolf Steiner
Das Reich der Sprache. Die Sprache als Spiegelung des Lebens
Dornach 1935, and
GA 299, Dornach 1977.
- an interesting dissertation:
- Herbert Henry Asquith,
Earl of Oxford and Asquith, 1852-1928. Minister from 1892. Prime
- urgent request not to take notes:
This of course did not apply to Helene Finckh, the
official stenographer, who took down all Rudolf Steiner's
lectures from 1916 onwards.
- Mikhail Bakunin,
1814-1876. Russian anarchist.
Part I, Auerbach's Cellar.
- German Reich:
On the foundation of the German Reich and the question of the title of
Kaiser see Bismarck
Gedanken und Erinnerungen
(Thoughts and Memoires), Stuttgart 1915, Volume Two, Chapter 23:
From Hans F Helmolt
Die Geheime Vorgeschichte des Weltkrieges
(The Secret Build-Up to the World War), Leipzig 1914, p.17.
- judgement expressed in the year 1870:
Thomas Carlyle, 1795-1881. Scots essayist and historian. Rudolf
Steiner was reading from a heavily abbreviated version in German
of the letter written by Carlyle on 11 November 1870 and printed in
on 18 November 1870. The same issue of
carried an editorial praising Carlyle as a historian but disagreeing
with the opinions expressed in his letter. The text of the letter in
ends with the words ‘hopefullest public fact that has occurred
in my time’. What follows was read aloud by Rudolf Steiner as
if it was still part of the letter. It has been impossible to discover
the German text from which he was reading.
- this man said:
Rudolf Steiner read this quotation from p.38 of Helmolt's book (see
Note 5). Helmolt prefaces it with the words ‘A telling
portrait of Grey is painted in the following letter written by a
colleague of his during the ambassadors' conference in London
in the winter of 1912 to 1913.’ As it has proved impossible
to trace the original source, the text here quoted is a
re-translation from the German translation.
- Jean Jaurès,
One of the leaders of the French Socialist party in its
formative years. After Helmolt. As above, p.38f.
- senator Gaudain de Villaine:
Die Frankfurter Zeitung
of 23 November 1906, No. 323: ‘Paris 21
November. According to the version published by a number of papers,
Prime Minister Clemenceau's declaration on foreign policy in
reply to the interpellation from senator Gaudain de Villaine was as
follows: “You say that I am a supporter of English policies
without adding any explanation and without telling us what these
are, and you use this as a basis for predicting the greatest
misfortune for France ...” (Gaudain de Villaine,
interrupting: “Yes or No, is there a military agreement with
England?”) Clemenceau continues: “Do you imagine that I
can answer Yes or No to such a question? Although the Minister for
Foreign Affairs has sent dispatches to me as well as all his
cabinet colleagues, of which some might refer to the Anglo-French
entente, I have not studied the question of whether there is a
military agreement.” (Villaine, interrupting: “This is
monstrous!”) Clemenceau: “What is monstrous?”
Villaine: “What you have said! What an admission!”
Clemenceau: “Then you also spoke of dictatorship and
ministers bent on revenge. You had no right to use that word. What
am I supposed to reply? Do you wish me to disavow the views held by
countless Frenchmen? Is that what you have the gall to demand?
(Lively applause on the left). Do you want me to abandon France to
the worst adventurers by agreeing with you? Such a thing would be
unworthy of a good Frenchman.” ’ There followed a vote
of confidence showing 213 against and 32 in favour of the
Government. (Helmolt, as above, pp.41/42)
- disarmament proposal:
At the peace conferences in The Hague in 1899 and 1907, disarmament
proposals were also made.
- in the Daily News:
After Helmolt, as above, pp.26-27.
- success achieved ... by the Entente:
This refers to the Romanian campaign which was
successfully concluded at the end of December 1916 by the Central
Powers. The Serbian army, consisting of four divisions, had been
reorganized and fought successfully in the East against the
Bulgarians under the French general Sarrail, the Supreme Commander
East of the Entente forces. See Stegemann
Geschichte des Krieges
(History of the War), Stuttgart 1921, Volume Four, p.136.
- the Duchess's exclamation:
This is lacking in the shorthand report. It is included in M. Harden
Krieg und Frieden
(War and Peace), Berlin 1918, Volume One, p.36.
- rather inferior Paris journal:
Almanach de Mme de Thèbes. Conseils pour être heureux,
Paris 1912. See also Rudolf Steiner
Aus dem mitteleuropäischen Geistesleben,
GA 65, Dornach 1962, p.583.
- Robert Arthur, Marquis of Salisbury,
1838-1903. For decades one of the most prominent
British politicians. British delegate to the 1878 Berlin
- essay by an Austrian:
This has so far not been traced.
- Herbert Spencer,
1820-1903. Political essays:
The Proper Sphere of Government
Man versus the State
- John Stuart Mill,
1806-1873. English philosopher and economist.
Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform
Considerations on Representational Government
England and Ireland
Subjection of Woman
- Gotthold Ephraim Lessing,
1729-1781. German dramatist, critic and writer on
aesthetics. One of the great seminal minds in German literature.
Laokoon oder über die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie
(Laocoon or the Limits of Painting and Poetry), 1766.
- Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
1770-1831. German philosopher.
Selbstbewusstsein des Gedankens
(Self-Consciousness of Thought). See Rudolf Steiner
Aus schicksaltragender Zeit,
GA 64, Dornach 1959, lecture entitled ‘Der Schauplatz der Gedanken
als Ergebnis des deutschen Idealismus im Hinblick auf unsere
- when Austria voluntarily declared:
Before Italy joined the war, Austria had declared
herself willing to accede to most of Italy's territorial
demands. On 4 May 1915 she offered to relinquish all the Italian
areas of the South Tyrol and the region to the right of the Isonzo.
Also offered was the autonomy of Trieste, the establishment of an
Italian university there and the recognition of Italian rule in
Valona. (Herre, as above, p.249.)
- or rather those three people:
Among the notes Rudolf Steiner made for these
lectures is a sheet on which he had written the names Salandra,
Sonnino and Tittoni. All three were prominent Italian politicians
at that time: Antonio Salandra, 1853-1931, Prime Minister 1914;
Giorgio Sidney Sonnino, 1847-1927, Foreign Minister 1914, concluded
the pact with the Entente in London in 1915; Tomasso Tittoni,
1855-1931, Ambassador in Paris 1914-1916, President of the Senate
- Jakob Böhme,
1575-1624. German mystic.
- Louis Claude de
Saint-Martin, 1743-1803. French illuminist who signed his
works ‘Le Philosophe Inconnu’.
- recent book:
Vom Menschenrätsel. Ausgesprochenes und Unausgesprochenes
im Denken, Schauen, Sinnen einer Reihe deutscher und österreichischer
(The Riddle of the Human Being.
Spoken and Unspoken Aspects of the
Thinking, Vision and Reflections of a Number of German and Austrian
Personalities), GA 20, Dornach 1957.
- to solve certain ... problems:
The Challenge of the Times,
Anthroposophic Press, New York, 1987. Lecture of 1 December 1918.
See also C. G. Harrison, as above Lecture 1.
- that sin comes from the law:
Romans, 7,8: ‘For without the law sin was dead.’
- John Emrich Baron Acton,
1834-1902. English historian.
- to an inner place:
Confirmed by Sir Roger Casement in
Irland, Deutschland und die Freiheit der Meere.
- ‘The foreigner has no ...’:
Only the first few words of this quotation appear in the shorthand
report. Lord Acton
Lecture on the Study of History,
Cambridge 1895, p.15.
- Michael Faraday,
1791-1867. English chemist and physicist. The quotation is not
included in the shorthand report. The passage selected is one that
states particularly concisely a thought frequently expressed by
Faraday. From Henry Bence Jones
The Life and Letters of Faraday,
London 1870, Volume Two, p.325.
- Charles Robert Darwin,
1809-1882. English naturalist.
- Sir Isaac Newton,
1642-1727. English physical scientist and mathematician.
- Ernst Heinrich Haeckel,
1834-1919. German zoologist.
- Aristide Briand,
1862-1932. French Prime Minister (eleven times) and French Foreign
Minister (fifteen times).
- The closing words of this lecture:
Thursday's lecture will be in Basel and we will then meet
here again next Sunday at 5 o'clock. There will be no lecture
on Saturday, firstly because many of you will be busy preparing for
Christmas, and secondly because I was told earlier that something
ever so beautiful is being prepared that Saturday is needed for
rehearsals. So we shall meet here again next Sunday if no one has
any objections. If anyone would prefer a different time, please
raise your hand.
See, among others, Rudolf Steiner
Christ and the Spiritual World. The Search for the Holy Grail,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1963, Lecture One.
- creeds of Arius or Athanasius:
At the first Council of Nicaea (325) the
Athanasian creed (identity of the Son with the Father) was
accepted. Arius denied this identity and stressed the oneness of
God the Father. He gained many supporters, especially among the
Germanic tribes, and the strife between the two schools of thought
dragged on throughout the fourth and fifth centuries, until
Arianism lost its influence.
‘To Mannus they assign three sons, from whose names, they say, the
coast tribes are called Ingaevones; those of the interior, Herminones;
all the rest Istaevones.’ Tacitus
A literal translation of these two sentences reads as follows:
‘Subconsciously the people knew themselves to be ruled by
gods, who were given the name ‘Wanen’ [English: Vanir],
which is connected with the word ‘wahnen’ [to fancy, to
imagine], that is, with that which runs its course, not in full,
intellectual consciousness but in a “knowing, dream
- contained in Tacitus:
Tacitus on the Ertha saga,
40. Translated by A J Church and W J Brodribb.
- Walpurgis Night:
The night of 30 April to 1 May when the witches are said to gather on
the Brocken in the Harz Mountains.
- Scandinavian mysteries:
See Rudolf Steiner
The Mission of the Individual Folk-Souls,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1970, and also
Die Julzeit und die Christfeststimmung,
- famous Anglo-Saxon rune-song:
The so-called song of the runic names. Twenty-second rune. See Wilhelm Grimm
Über deutsche Runen
(On German Runes), Göttingen 1821.
- longing for peace is shouted down:
See Note 1, Lecture Five.
- request you once again:
See Note 1, Lecture Seven.
- After his opening request, Rudolf Steiner first spoke about the
Christmas Plays, giving the meaning of certain dialect words in the
Paradise Play. This passage — about a page — has been
omitted here, since it is irrelevant for English speaking readers.
- discussion in Basel:
See Note 4, Lecture Eight.
After further examination of the shorthand report,
‘to see’, (which was used in the 1966 German edition)
was changed to esse in the 1978 edition, from which this
translation is made. It is possible that there is a gap in the
- law by the sins:
See Note 27, Lecture Seven.
- Jesuit Father:
Pater Klinkowström. See Rudolf Steiner
Things of the Present and of the Past in the Spirit of Man,
Lecture Four. English text available in typescript only.
- Cola di Rienzi,
1313-1354. Italian politician. In 1347 he proclaimed the foundation
of a people's state and himself adopted the ancient title of
d'Annunzio, 1863-1938. Italian poet. According to
information received by the publisher of the German edition of
these lectures, the widely held view that d'Annunzio's
real name was Rapagnetta is explained by the fact that his father,
whose name had indeed been Rapagnetta, had been adopted as a child
by a family named d'Annunzio. His name in law would then have
been d'Annunzio Rapagnetta. In the register of births his son
was entered as Gabriele d'Annunzio. In an article of 16 May
1915 in the Roman newspaper
the poet was described as a ‘singer of all shameful
degeneracy’. His novel
The Flame of Life
refers to his relationship with the famous actress Eleonora Duse.
- D'Annunzio gave a speech:
On 12 May 1915.
- Giovanni Giolitti,
1841-1928. For decades one of Italy's most influential
- in the solemn gathering of our union:
D'Annunzio means the forthcoming parliamentary session at which
the entry of Italy into the war was decided.
- villa on the Pincio:
The German embassy. Von Bülow was the Ambassador.
- from the gospels:
These ‘beatitudes’ conclude the speech of 5 May
- The Spiritual Guidance of Man and Humanity,
Anthroposophic Press, New York, 1970.
- invitation from Copenhagen:
See preceding Note.
- Once upon a time:
Rudolf von Ems (13th century)
Der gute Gerhard
(Gerhard the Good). A modern publication in German is available
from Verlag Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart 1962.
- Otto of the Red Beard:
Otto II, 955-983.
- in the middle of the nineteenth century:
See Rudolf Steiner
The Occult Movement in the Nineteenth Century,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1973.
See Note 2, Lecture Two.
- connecting link for machinations:
For this whole episode, see also C. G. Harrison
The Transcendental Universe,
as above, Lecture 1.
- Silvagni, Durante, Sergi, Cecconi, Lombroso:
In an article published in
Volume 12, Booklet 9, June 1915, M Rennert says: ‘All the leaders
of the radical wing, our chief enemies, belong to lodges: Professors
Silvagni (Bologna), Durante (Rome), Sergi (Rome), Cecconi (Turin),
Lombroso and all his relations ...’
- on the different folk spirits:
See Note 7, Lecture Eight.
- ‘Celtic soul and Latin spirit’:
L'âme celtique et le génie de la France,
published 1915, third edition Paris 1921.
- Wolfram von Eschenbach,
early 13th century. One of the greatest medieval
- James I,
1566-1625. James VI of Scotland from 1567; James I of England from 1603.
See Rudolf Steiner
From Symptom to Reality in Modern History,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1976, and
Cosmic Being and Egohood,
Lecture 7, English text available in typescript only.
- history of symptoms:
See previous Note.
- Thirty Years' War:
1618-1648, part of a fifty-year struggle for the
European balance of power involving Austrian Habsburgs and the
German princes and cities.
- battle of the White Mountain:
On 8 November 1620 between the ‘Winter
King’, Frederick V, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, and the
- Seven Years' War:
1756-1763 between Prussia under Frederick II and the
coalition of Austria, Russia, Sweden and France.
1818-1901. Queen of England 1837-1901.
- Ernst August, Duke of Cumberland,
1771-1851. King of Hanover 1837. He repealed the
constitution of Hanover in November 1837. Among the ‘seven
professors’ of Göttingen University were the brothers
Grimm and the historian Gervinus. Regarding the Orange Lodge, or
Orangemen, Lennhoff says in
(Secret Political Societies), Berlin 1932: ‘As time went on, the
Orangemen spread over the whole of Great Britain. They had lodges
in the army and in the colonies and exercised considerable
influence in politics. It is true that in 1828, when the Duke of
Cumberland, later King Ernst August of Hanover, had become Grand
Master, the anti-Catholic vow was abolished and the purpose of the
society declared to be nothing more than “the preservation of
the true, legally established, religion” and the
“preservation of the Protestant line of succession and the
defence of all Orangemen and their property”. But this made
not the slightest difference to the nature of the society. As much
as ever before, the methods were in stark contrast to the vow of
Christian charity and tolerance expected of members on their
admission ... The Orange Order was severely reprimanded by a
parliamentary commission which found that it had weakened rather
than strengthened Protestantism by its intransigence, that it had
stiffed up religious fervour, corrupted the machinery of justice
and exercised unlawful influence over parts of the army. But this
did not prevent it from continuing to exist.’ (PP.
- Thomas Moore,
1779-1852. Irish poet.
- meeting at Racconigi:
- Ernesto Nathan,
born London 1845, died Rome 1921. Became an Italian citizen in 1888.
Mayor of Rome 1907-1913.
- Giuseppe Mazzini,
1805-1872. Italian patriot. Revolutionary prophet of the Risorgimento.
- ‘sisterly’ route:
One of the sisters of Queen Helene, a princess of
Montenegro, had married a Russian grand duke.
Gedanken und Erinnerungen
(Thoughts and Memories), Popular Edition, Volume One, p.229.
- an essay:
J'accuse, von einem Deutschen
Second Edition, Lausanne 1915. See Rudolf Steiner
The Karma of Untruthfulness, Volume Two,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1988, Lecture One.
- A forthcoming book:
- yearning for peace ... to be shouted down:
See Note 1, Lecture Five.
- Giuseppe Prezzolini,
born 1882. Italian writer. The books mentioned in the quotation
are: P. D. Fischer
Italien und die Italiener
(Italy and the Italians), 1901; Bolton-King
A History of Italian Unity,
London 1899, and
- Lloyd George:
See Note 13, Lecture Four.
- Belgian neutrality:
Memorandum on Resignation
shows quite clearly that the violation of Belgian neutrality was
not the reason but the excuse for England's intervention in the war.
- Georg Brandes:
See Note 17, Lecture One.
- my recent book:
See Note 25, Lecture Seven.
- Documents ... found during the war:
These were Belgian embassy reports found by the
Germans in Brussels and subsequently published.
- Belgium occupied the Congo:
- an agreement:
Die belgische Neutralität
(Belgian Neutrality), Tübingen 1915:
‘Soon after the outbreak of war England concluded identical
treaties with the two combatants in which each of these was
committed to respect the neutrality of Belgium if the other did so,
failing which England undertook to protect Belgian
neutrality.’ See also Morel
Truth and the War,
- most appalling document:
Rudolf Steiner seems to mean the Tsar's
order to the army and navy at the end of 1916: ...’ This
point in time [for peace negotiations] has not yet arrived. The
enemy has not yet been driven from the territories he has occupied.
Possession of Constantinople and the straits, as well as the
creation of a free Poland, have not yet been secured ... Above
all, the holy memory of the sons of Russia fallen in battle does
not permit even a thought of peace before the enemy is utterly
defeated ... Not until he [the enemy] finally surrenders and
gives us and our loyal allies certain definite guarantees that he
will never again commit a similar perfidious invasion, not until he
is compelled to keep the commitments peace will lay upon him, can
any thought be given to an end to the war.’ December
- judgement of Sir Edward Grey:
See Note 7, Lecture Seven.
- habit of smoking opium:
Rudoif Steiner's description of the opium war follows an article
by K. A. von Müller
(The Opium War) in
Volume Twelve, Booklet 4, January 1915.
- and I quote:
The quotations are from von Müller's article.
- lecture cycle mentioned the other day:
See Note 7, Lecture Eight.
- New Year's Eve gift:
Joint note of 30 December 1916 from the ten Allies
(both large and small) to President Wilson (in reply to his appeal
for peace on 18 December 1916). The note contained the following
sentence: ‘One historical fact is certain at present, namely
the aggressive will of Germany and Austria-Hungary to secure a
dominant position in Europe and the economic domination of the
- words we have read today:
See previous Note.
- John Stuart Mill:
See Note 18, Lecture Seven.
- Alexander Herzen,
1812-1870. Russian writer. Correspondence between Herzen and Mill.
- ‘Chineseness’ in Europe:
See Rudolf Steiner
Aus schicksaltragender Zeit,
GA 64, Dornach 1959, Lecture of 29 October 1914. Here he quotes
Der Anmarsch des Pöbels
(The Approach of the Rabble), Munich 1907.
- Expressed ... in the mystery drama:
The Soul's Awakening,
translated by Ruth and Hans Pusch. Steiner Book Centre, Toronto
1973, Scene Eight:
The holy mystic ritual we perform
is of significance not only here for us.
Through word and deed of sacred priestly rites
there pours the fateful stream of world events.
- speak about a social carcinoma:
The Inner Nature of Man and the Life Between Death and a New Birth,
Anthroposophical Publishing Company, London 1959.*
- prussic acid ... on ancient Moon:
The modern term for prussic acid is
hydrocyanic acid. In Paris in 1906 Rudolf Steiner explained that
the laws of ancient Moon were preserved in the comets and that the
atmosphere of comets contained something like a cyanide compound.
This was confirmed by natural scientists in 1910. See also Rudolf
L'Esotéricisme chrétien d'une cosmogonie psychologique,
transcrit par Edouard Schuré,
- Lecture ... in Prague:
An Occult Physiology,
Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1973, Lecture 8.
- King of Spain:
Alfonso X, the Wise, of Castile and Léon, 1252-1284, is supposed
to have said that had he been God he would have arranged the world
- Saint-Martin, Jakob Böhme:
See Note 23,
- Sir Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington,
1769-1852: British commander-chief and
statesman. Conquered Napoleon at Waterloo.
- George Stuart Fullerton:
An American professor who spent several years teaching at the
universities of Munich and Vienna.
Why the German Nation has Gone to War. An American to Americans.
- Lloyd George:
Extract from a speech delivered at the Queen's Hall on 28 July 1908.
Quoted in E. D. Morel
Truth and the War,
London 1916, p.95.
Typescripts are available at The
Library, Anthroposophical Society in Great Britain, 35 Park Road,
London NW1 6XT, UK.