Spiritual Science as a Foundation for Social Forms
Social Forms: Notes
Reference to Rudolf Steiner's return from Stuttgart where,
from July 24 until August 1, 1920, he had been giving
lectures for the teachers of the Waldorf School, for the
general public and the Anthroposophical Society.
The Waldorf School: Founded by Emil Molt (1876–1936)
in the year 1919 for the children of the workmen in the
“Waldorf-Astoria” cigarette factory and the
public as a coeducational elementary and high school under
the leadership of Rudolf Steiner, who had also appointed the
teachers and had given them preparatory courses.
Dr. Walter Johannes Stein: 1891–1957,
Dr. Caroline van Heydebrandt: 1866–1938;
both teachers in the Waldorf School from 1919.
See Preface and Introduction to
Goethe's Naturwissenschaftliche Schriften,
edited by Rudolf Steiner. Introductions to all the volumes
written by Rudolf Steiner under the same title, Dornach, 1926.
“The Portal of Initiation”
Four Mystery Play,
GA 14 (Toronto, Steiner Book Centre, 1973).
“Stimmen der Zeit,” Freiburg i. Br.,
1918–1920, Otto Zimmermann SJ, Josef Kreitmaier SJ,
Konstantin Nopels SJ.
Max Kully: 1878–1936, Catholic minister of Arlesheim near
Basle. Reference to a calumnious article against Rudolf Steiner
that he wrote in a Catholic Sunday paper, July 6, 1920.
The Mission of the Folk-Souls,
GA 121 (London, Rudolf Steiner Press, 1970).
Lenin: 1870–1924, founder and leader of Bolshevism;
Trotski: 1879–1940, Lenin's closest associate.
From Jesus to Christ,
GA 131 (London, Rudolf Steiner Press, 1973).
Occult Science, an Outline,
GA 13 (Spring Valley, Anthroposophic Press, 1972).
Ludwig Buechner: 1824–1899, doctor of medicine;
Jacob Moleschott: 1822–1893, physiologist;
Carl Vogt: 1817–1895, zoologist.
Towards Social Renewal,
GA 23 (London, Rudolf Steiner Press, 1977).
Words by Pylades in Goethe's play,
“Iphigenie auf Taurus.”
Wisdom of Man, of the Soul, and of the Spirit,
GA 115 (New York, Anthroposophic Press, 1971);
Human and Cosmic Thought,
Human and Cosmic Thought,
GA 151 (London, Rudolf Steiner Press, 1967);
Kosmische und menschliche Geschichte,
Vol. I and II, GA 170/171 (Dornach, Rudolf
Steiner Verlag, 1964). Not translated.
Knowledge of the Higher Worlds and Its Attainment,
GA 10 (Spring Valley, Anthroposophic Press, 1983).
Mechthild von Magdeburg: 1207–1290, mystic;
St. Theresa, 1515–1582, Spanish saint;
Johannes vom Kreuz (Juan de la Cruz): 1542–1591,
mystic and theologian, reformer of the Carmelite Order;
Meister Eckhart: 1260–1327, Dominican mystic;
Johannes Tauler: 1300–1361, student of Meister Eckhart,
mystic, Dominican preacher.
Charles Webster Leadbeater: 1847–1934, prominent
personality of the Theosophical Society.
Oswald Spengler: 1880–1936,
The Decline of the West,
Dr. Roman Boos's descriptions, given on August 13, 1920, were not
recorded. He reported orally on them to Dr. Steiner.
Refers to a news report carried by the French, German and
Swiss press, according to which the German Foreign Minister,
Simons, had supposedly told a reporter of the
“Impartial” that he was a follower of the reforms
suggested by Rudolf Steiner (the threefold social organism).
See, among others, “Basler Nachrichte,” 1920,
#345, August 14, in which an article is quoted from the
“Vossische Zeitung” of August 6. In the lecture
of April 22, 1921, in answer to a particularly crude article
in which Simons was described as “the favorite disciple
of the Theosophist, Steiner,” Rudolf Steiner made the
following comment: “In the weekly magazine which is
primarily the mouthpiece of widespread public opinion, we
note in the last issue that public sentiment was being worked
up against Simons' policies. It goes without saying that
neither anthroposophical spiritual science nor the threefold
movement have anything to do with Simons' politics. It is out
of a spirit of deep untruthfulness that anthroposphical
spiritual science is lumped together with Simons'
See Lecture III
of this volume.
See the lecture of March 18, 1920; printed in
“Menschenschule,” Pamphlet 6, 1958.
Hermann Grimm: 1828–1901,
Vol. 2, Berlin, 1877.
This law was first proclaimed by Julius Robert Mayer
(1814–1878), doctor and scientist. See Rudolf Steiner:
Erdensterben und Weltenleben,
GA 181, Lecture XII (not included in English translation of this
cycle). Dornach, 1967.
Adolf von Harnack: 1851–1930. The quotation literally says:
“Not the Son, but only the Father belongs in the
Gospel, as Jesus proclaimed it.” In
Das Wesen des Christentums,
Rudolf Steiner: “Durch den Geist zur
Wirklichkeits-Erkenntnis der Menschenraetsel: Philosophie und
Anthroposophie. Vier Maerchen (aus den Mysteriendramen).
Anthroposophischer Seelenkalender. Der Seelen Erwachen,
7.u. 8. Bild,” Berlin, 1918. Compiled upon requests by
friends and published in book-form for the German soldiers on
See Lecture III
of this volume.
See Note #4.
See Lecture II
of this volume.
See Note #17.
See lecture by Rudolf Steiner,
“Urteilsbildung in den drei Gliedern des sozialen Organismus”
1950/51, #7 and 8/9. Not translated.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte: 1762–1814. The quotation
literally says: “The kind of philosophy one chooses
depends ... on what kind of human being one is ... A
philosophical system is not just a pile of inanimate
household goods that one can either dispose of or accept any
way one likes; it is ensouled by the soul of him who has
it.” In “Erste und zweite Einleitung in die
Wissenschaftslehre und Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der
Spiritual Guidance of Man and Humanity,
GA 15 (New York, Anthroposophic Press, 1970).
Max Dessoir: 1867–1947. Compare this with Rudolf Steiner:
GA 20 (Dornach, 1960). Not translated.
Hans Vaihinger: 1852–1933,
Die Philosophie des Als-Ob.
System der theoretischen, praktischen und
religioesen Fiktionen der Menschheit auf Grund eines
idealistischen Positivismus. Berlin, 1911.
Wilhelm Jerusalem: 1842–1910, who in 1908 published a
by William James.
Part I, GA 173 (Dornach, Rudolf Steiner Verlag, 1966). Not
Appeared in “The Morning Post,” London, July
12–30, 1920. Also published in pamphlet form,
The Causes of World Unrest,
Bimetalism: The policy of using two metals (mostly gold and
silver) jointly as a monetary standard. In most cases,
replaced by the gold standard since the second half of the
Egyptian Myths and Mysteries,
GA 106 (New York, Anthroposophic Press, 1971).
See Note0 #4.
Inner Nature of Man and the Life Between Death and a New Birth,
GA 153 (London, Anthroposophical Publishing Co., 1959).
Scotus Erigena: 810–877 A.D.
Translator of the writings by Dionysius Areopagita; author of
“De divina praedestinatione,” “ De divisione naturae.”
In 1225, the Vatican ordered all his writings burned.
See Note0 #13.
Sophie Cheftele, “Les forces morales aux Etats-Unis
(l'eglise, l'ecole, la femme),” Paris, 1920.
The source of this quote could not be found.
Oswald Spengler, Prophet of World Chaos,
in GA 198 (New York, Anthroposophic Press, 1949).
David Lloyd George: 1863–1945, British statesman, prime
minister from 1916 until 1922.
Eugene Clemenceau: 1841–1929, French statesman.
Philipp Scheidemann: 1865–1939, German secretary of
state, later minister president.
Gerhart Hauptmann: 1862–1946, playwright;
Johann Gottlieb Fichte:
Appellation an das Publikum ueber die ihm beigemessenen
Rabindranath Tagore: 1861–1941, Indian poet and
Francis Bacon: 1561–1626, English philosopher and
statesman, founder of empiricism;
Thomas Hobbes: 1588–1679, English philosopher;
Adam Smith: 1723–1790, English philosopher and sociologist;
John Stuart Mill: 1806–1873, English philosopher and
political economist, one of the founders of positivism;
Henry Thomas Buckle: 1821–1862, English writer on social history.
David Hume: 1711–1776, English philosopher and statesman;
John Locke: 1632–1704, English philosopher.
The Riddles of Philosophy,
GA 18 (New York, Anthroposophic Press, 1973).
Mary Baker Eddy: 1821–1910, founder of Christian
Herbert Spencer: 1820–1903, English philosopher; Jeremy
Bentham: 1748–1832, English Jurist, founder of
philosophy of utilitarianism.
Ralph Waldo Trine: 1866–1958, American author.
Woodrow Wilson: 1856–1924, president of the USA from
1913 until 1921. In an address to Congress on January 8,
1918, he outlined a “Program of World Peace,”
condensed in fourteen points.
Prinz Max von Baden: 1866–1929, became German chancellor in
the fall of 1918; on October 5, 1918, he directed a peace
offer to President Wilson based on the latter's
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: 1770–1831; complete edition of
Hegel's works, Berlin, 1832–1844.
Eduard von Hartmann, 1842–1906.
Reference to Alfons Lehmen, SJ: 1847–1910, and his book
Lehrbuch der Philosophie auf aristotelisch-scholastischer Grundlage,
Vol. I, Freiburg i. Br., 1917. Compare with
this the lecture of July 10, 1920, reprinted in
“Blaetter fuer Anthroposophie,” September, 1953.
Heinrich Marianus Deinhardt: 1821–1879,
“Beitraege zur Wuerdigung Schillers. Briefe ueber die
aesthetische Erziehung des Menschen.”
Published by G. Wachsmuth, Stuttgart, 1922.
Orison Swett Marden: 1850–1924, American author.
Reference to the first Course of the School of Spiritual
Science at the Goetheanum from September 26 until October 16,
Ludwig Graf von Polzer-Hoditz: 1869–1945; his lecture
was later published under the title, “Der Kampf gegen
den Geist und das Testament Peters des Grossen,”
Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling: 1775–1854.
Friedrich Hoelderlin: 1770–1843.
See Lecture IV
of this volume.
Karl Rosenkranz: 1805–1879, philosopher and literary
Der Baugedanke des Goetheanum,
Gesamtausgabe Stuttgart, 1958.
Literally, this sentence says: “What is rational, is
real; and what is real is rational.” From preface to
Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts,
Professor Paul Menzer: “Abbau der
Universitaeten?” in “Hallische
Nachrichten,” August 18, 1920.
Ludwig Plate, 1862–1937.
The Phyletic Museum of the University of Jena was founded in
1907, and according to its foundation-charter was "intended
for the development and dissemination of the teaching of
evolution as well as morphology and anthropology." Already in
1886, Ernst Haeckel had tried to realize the plan of the
museum with the help of the so-called Ritter-Foundation, but
had failed because of the Opposition of the donor, Paul von
Ritter. It is quite possible that on the occasion of his
sixtieth birthday, Haeckel talked about this planned museum
in Dr. Steiner's presence. For Haeckel's birthday, his
students and friends collected money for a marble bust. More
money was collected than was needed. In 1894, this surplus of
10,000 marks still existed when the museum was established.
It was then included in the capital of the foundation. In a
footnote to a letter from Haeckel to Carneri on March 23,
1907, the publisher of the letters writes, “The
construction of the Phyletic Museum in Jena was of great
significance for the popularization of the teaching of
evolution. For a long time, Haeckel had been envisioning such
a ‘public-spirited center of education,’ namely,
a collection ... in which the most pertinent facts of
phylogeny would be suitably placed together, ...
preparations, pictures and explanations would aid the
public's understanding. The necessary fmancial means came
together through donations.” Rudolf Steiner was aware
of all these matters.
Refers to the article by E.F.: “Haeckel und —
Plate,” in the “Berliner Tageblatt,”
evening edition of August 19, 1920.
The writer of the article, E.F.,
bypasses the true facts with his report. Compare with this
Heilborn's description on pp. 12 and 13 of his pamphlet,
Die Lear-Tragoedie Ernst Haeckels:
“One of Plate's first official actions after his move was
the demand that Haeckel immediately clear out his study in the
zoological institute. The elderly scientist was at that
moment suffering from severe rheumatism. In order to be able
to comply with Plate's request, Haeckel had to have himself
carried into the institute ... This hasty move then took
place in the custodian's and Haeckel's daughter's presence; a
move that required the transport of letters, documents and
books across to the Phyletic Museum. In two days, this was
accomplished. Haeckel was just surveying his new workroom
when the recently appointed director of the museum, Plate,
appeared, announcing that he was requisitioning
the„assistant's room for his ... 84 cages of live
mice that he had brought with him ... for the purpose of
genetic tests. Haeckel ... protested against this because
of the unavoidable dirt and smell of such a breeding center
and asked whether the mice couldn't be housed somewhere else
in Jena besides the brand-new museum. Haeckel suggested ...
a room in the zoological institute for this purpose. Plate,
however, did not like this, because the foul smell would be
too irksome for him in the adjacent laboratory. When Haeckel
remarked that surely he had a voice in the matter of the
arrangements in the Phyletic Museum, which was to serve
purposes other than the raising of mice, especially since the
museum had cost him two years of work and a great part of his
own fmancial resources, Plate declared as if with the full
weight of his office, ‘I am sole director of the
Phyletic Museum since April 1 and you have to submit to all
my orders without exception.’ A bitter exchange of
words ensued and the elderly Haeckel finally said, ‘You
treat me like an assistant who is twenty years younger, not
like your teacher who is thirty years older!’ Plate
left without a word ... This was the first tribute of
gratitude on the part of the ‘sincerely devoted old
pupil’ and the first expression of his ‘special
joy over furnishing the museum together with Haeckel
according to the latter's intentions!’”
Ottokar Lorenz: 1832–1904, Austrian historian.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche: 1844–1900.
See Note0 #9.
See Lecture VII
of this volume.
See Note0 #54.
Thomas Huxley: 1825–1895.
Grundlinien einer Philosophie des Rechts,
Johann Gottlieb Fichte:
Grundlage des Naturrechts,
A.W. Lunatsharsky: 1875–1933, Russian author and politician.
Thomas Aquinas: 1226–1274; compare Rudolf Steiner:
The Redemption of Thinking,
GA 74 (Spring Valley, Anthroposophie Press, 1983).
Erich Ludendorff: 1865–1937, German general.
Alexander Helphand, died in 1924, Russian socialist,
for a time a political refugee in Germany.
He played an important role in bringing about the Bolshevic
revolution as well as the peace of Brest-Litovsk (1918).
Anthropogenie oder Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen,
Leipzig, 1891, p. 871.
Max Christlieb: 1862–1916.
In “Soziale Zukunft,” #5–7, Dornach, 1920.
Spiritual Science and Medicine,
GA 312 (London, Rudolf Steiner Press, 1948).
Goethe: Tasso I, 2.
See Note #90.
See Note #24.
William James: 1842–1910. American psychologist and philosopher.
See Note #36.
The second part is unknown.