The Study of Man
General Education Course
By Rudolf Steiner
Copyright © 1966
First English edition (Rudolf Steiner Publishing Co., London,
and Anthroposophic Press, N.Y.), 1947.
Translation made from the first edition in German, 1932.
Second edition (Rudolf Steiner Press), 1966.
Translation revised from the fifth edition of the German text, 1960.
Second impression of second edition, 1975
The German text of the following lectures is published under the title
Allgemeine Menschenkunde als Grundlage der Pädagogik
(No. 293 in the Bibliographical Survey, 1961)
This English edition is published by permission
of the Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung, Dornach, Switzerland.
This e.Text edition is provided with the cooperation of:
The Rudolf Steiner Press
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| ||Cover Sheet
|A Note on the Revised Translation
||August 21, 1919|
Egoism and Materialism. Life before birth and after death. Pre-natal
Education. Union of Spirit and Soul elements before birth. Union of
these with Life-Body after birth. Importance of breathing in uniting
the three-fold man. Nature of sleep in child and adult. The teacher
makes his relation with the child through what he is, which
depends on his thoughts about the world. Children must learn to
breathe and to sleep ...
||August 22, 1919|
Mental picture and Will not understood to-day. Image character of
mental picture which is devoid of reality or being. Mental picture
stems from life before birth, Will from life after death. The former
works through antipathy, the latter through sympathy. Memory arises
through heightened antipathy, Imagination through heightened sympathy,
as also sense pictures. Contrast of nerves and blood. Decay and seed.
True function of motor nerves. Three places where sympathy and
antipathy meet. Cosmic relations of threefold organism of man.
Concepts produce carbonic acid, imaginative pictures oxygen. Need for
planting seed pictures in child.
||August 23, 1919|
Equal importance of teachers of children of all ages. Twofold division
of man has supplanted older division into Body, Soul and Spirit.
Conservation of energy not true for man. Intellect grasps only the
dying, Will, in sense perception, grasps the becoming. Unique nature
of pure thinking. Nature could not exist without man. Dead
human bodies are yeast to earth. Man thinks with bones as well as
nerves. Origin of geometry lies in movement. Man keeps earth alive.
Man not merely a spectator but a stage for cosmic events.
Transformation, not conservation, is true law of life.
||August 25, 1919|
Will and feeling not understood to-day. Will never fully realised in
life, something remains over. The three Spiritual Principles:
Spirit-Self Manas Manes; Life Spirit; Spirit Man. The
three Soul Principles: Consciousness, Intellectual and Sentient Souls.
The three Bodily Principles: Astral, Etheric and Physical. How Will
works in these. In physical, as instinct animals act according
to their physical bodies. In etheric, as impulse. In astral, as
desire, which reaches to soul element. Through his ego man raises
these to motive. Behind motive lie, in the unconscious, wish,
intention and resolution which live in the three Spiritual Principles.
Story of lady and horses, illustrating cleverness of the unconscious.
Teacher must understand hidden being of man. Marxist education
illustrated. Repetition, not exhortation, affects the Will ...
||August 26, 1919|
Each of the three soul activities includes qualities of all. Balance
of sympathy and antipathy in the senses. Human and animal senses.
Child lives in sympathy. Moral development through antipathy. Between
willing (sympathy) and thinking (antipathy) lies feeling which
comprises both. True nature of judgment. Feeling is cognition in
reserve and will in reserve. Meeting place of blood and nerves.
Beckmesser and Walther. Wagner and Hanslick. Variety of feeling in
different senses. Reality must be won through work.
||August 27, 1919|
Soul reveals itself in sympathy and antipathy. Light of consciousness
in thinking. Unconsciousness of Will. Feeling lies midway. Man wakes
in thinking, sleeps in willing, dreams in feeling. Types of children
and how to help them. Ego, youngest principle of man, can only live in
images, not in real forces of the world. How ego lives in thinking,
feeling and willing. Difference of the two parts of Faust. Waking
knowing in images: Dreaming inspired feeling: Sleeping
||August 28, 1919|
Soul apprehended through sympathy and antipathy: Spirit through states
of consciousness. All comprehension comes through relating things. In
childhood man principally Body; in middle years Soul; in old age
Spirit. Body may block Spirit in old age (Kant Michelet
Zeller). Man may belie Soul in middle years. Willing united with
feeling in childhood, cognition with feeling in old age. Sense
perception related to willing-feeling, not to cognition. Hence it
lives in dreaming-sleeping. Moritz Benedikt's work. Two zones where
man sleeps sense sphere on periphery and inner sphere of blood
and muscle. Physical-chemical processes in both. Intermediate sphere
of decaying nerve substance is sphere of waking, where man becomes
light, sound, etc. This is space aspect. In time, forgetting is
sleeping, memory is waking.
||August 29, 1919|
Effect of sleep on ego. Need to regulate remembering and forgetting.
Connection of Will and memory. Interest begets memory. Each soul force
contains the others as well. The Twelve Senses. Sense of another's ego
lives in sympathy and antipathy. Touch, Life, Movement, Balance
related to Will: Smell, Taste, Sight, Warmth to feeling: Ego-sense,
Thought, Hearing, Speech to knowing. Interrelation of senses. Colour
and form perceived by different senses. Goethe and colour ...
||August 30, 1919|
In first seven-year period child develops through imitation: in second
through authority; in third through individual judgment. Need to
permeate thinking with logic. The syllogism. Conclusions live in
waking life and should not be memorised. Judgments carried in feeling.
Concepts enter sleeping soul and affect body. Concepts of child form
face of adult. Characterisations needed', not definitions. Relate
everything to Man. Prayer metamorphosed to Blessing. In first period
child assumes world is moral; in second beautiful; in third true ...
||September 01, 1919|
Consideration of Body. Spherical (Sun) form of head. Moon form of
breast. Radial form of limbs. Jaws are stunted limbs in head. Blood
and muscle nature of limbs. Tubular limb bones: rounded head bones.
Metamorphosis in bones. Head centre is within: breast centre outside:
limb centre in periphery. Sense of cosmic relations in ancient
sculpture. Head arrests limb movement. Head and breast turn limb dance
to song and music. Head man reveals Body: Breast man Body and Soul:
Limb man Body, Soul and Spirit. Council of 869 A.D. and its
consequences. Head alone is evolved animal, not breast or limbs.
Teacher must understand man as microcosm.
||September 02, 1919|
Relation of head to Body, Soul and Spirit. In first period of
childhood Soul and Spirit are dreaming and sleeping outside child,
hence he imitates. Head fully formed at change of teeth. Relation of
Breast and Limbs to Body, Soul and Spirit. Head perfected but
sleeping. Limbs awake but unformed. Teacher can only educate part of
child. First mother milk, then mother speech awaken child. Teacher's
task to continue this awakening. Writing should be learnt by way of
breast and limbs, and developed from drawing and painting. Elementary
school concerned with breast man. Relation of memory and imagination
to physical growth.
||September 03, 1919|
Relation of human organs to outer world. Head the oldest formation. It
shapes the human being, but has tendency to create animal forms. Trunk
and limb systems prevent this, and transform animal forms into
thoughts. Trunk system related to plant world. Oxygen changed to
carbon in breathing. Plants would arise in man if he retained carbon.
Illnesses caused through plant nature asserting itself, Plants are
pictures of illnesses. In digestion only middle process of combustion
occurs, How breathing the anti-plant process unites with
this middle. Hygiene of future. Mechanics of limb movement, behind
which lie the forces in which the ego lives. These forces dissolve the
mineral in man. Destructive illnesses arise when this does not happen.
Lines of therapy.
||September 04, 1919|
Head formed from within out; limbs from without in Man acts as dam for
in-rushing Soul and Spirit. Balance between destructive activity of
these and constructive of Body. Part played by chest and limb systems.
Nature and effect of fat in child. Living elements absorb Soul and
Spirit, decaying let them through. Blood opaque to Spirit, Nerve
transparent. Spirit active in bodily work, Body in mental. Relation of
sleep to different forms of bodily activity. Purposeful movements
needed. Eurythmy and Sport. Sport practical Darwinism. Relation of
sleep to different forms of mental activity. Interest essential ...
||September 05, 1919|
In Head, nose represents trunk, jaws limbs. Actual limbs are jaws of a
spiritual head which continually devour man from without. Upper part
of chest man develops to head nature in larynx the head
of the throat. Sounds of speech, nasal, etc., correspond to
parts of head. When second teeth appear grammar needed as
corresponding skeleton of speech. Lower trunk develops limb character
towards puberty in sex organs which are coarsened limb nature. Inner
warmth necessary as correspondence, i.e. Imagination. Examples in
imaginative treatment of subjects. Camera Obscura and theorem of
Pythagoras. No pedantry permissible in teaching. Schelling. A maxim
for teachers ...
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