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  • Title: PoSA: Contents
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    • The Idea of Freedom
  • Title: PoSA: Foreword
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    • to awaken in the reader a new experience of the world of ideas, to
    • ideas to English and German speaking groups over many years. Her translation
  • Title: PoSA: Introduction - Rudolf Steiner as a Philosopher
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    • life, we succeed in experiencing the ideas working in the world of the
    • calls his philosophical system, “concrete” or “objective idealism.”
    • idealism and Goethe's world conception. In contrast to almost all
    • great idea of metamorphosis. According to the latter, the world is a
    • manifestation of ideal forces in the world of the senses. All plants, for
    • example, are nothing but materializations of the one, ideal archetypal
    • working idea which cannot be seen by means of our sense organs but which
    • “archetypal plant” is nothing more than an idea which man builds up in
    • Schiller answered, “This is not an experience; this is an idea.” To this
    • Goethe replied, “I am very happy about this, that I do have ideas without my
    • In Goethe's view, on the other hand, the idea and the sense perception
    • Schiller considers the ideal part as a subjective addition on the part of
    • 1797, exclaimed, entirely following Goethe's ideas, “No longer is there any
    • explained from the side of the idea. And here are Goethe's words: “By
    • Konigsberg,” the postulation of an objectively existent idea still
    • But how is man able to grasp this idea which, of its own nature is
    • metamorphosed, must be enhanced, in order to experience the idea of
    • the opposite is true: that objects have their ideal content within
    • their completeness. By thinking about the objects, we develop the ideas which
    • Consequentially, the idea is, and works objectively; however it is not
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter I: The Conscious Human Deed
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    • language against the idea of freedom has since been repeated times without
    • idealistic these representations are, just so much the more blessed is our
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter II: The Fundamental Urge For Knowledge
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    • phenomena, sets him. The artist seeks to imprint into matter the ideas of
    • absolute idealism, appears as an extreme spiritualist — is
    • argue the spirit away, just as little is it possible for the idealist to
    • elaboration of the world of ideas. This is the reason why someone who follows
    • of ideas. In this way spiritualism becomes one-sided idealism. He does not
    • reach the point of seeking through the world of ideas a spiritual
    • world; in the world of his ideas he sees the spiritual world itself. As a
    • is a curious variety of idealism, put
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter III: Thinking in the Service of Understanding the World
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    • spirit. Philosophers have started from various primary antitheses: idea and
    • non-ego, idea and will, concept and matter, force and substance, the
    • ideas, of all illusions and hallucinations are given us through
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter IV: The World as Perception
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    • When someone sees a tree, his thinking reacts to his observation, an ideal
    • ideal counterpart as belonging together. When the object disappears from his
    • field of observation, only the ideal counterpart of it remains. This latter
    • conceptual system, in which each concept has its special place. Ideas are
    • departure, and not concepts and ideas which must first be gained
    • by means of thinking. Concepts and ideas already presuppose thinking.
    • that the idea of the size of objects which he had formed by his sense
    • idealism, in contrast to the standpoint of naive consciousness which it
    • realism which it apparently refutes. Critical idealism wants to prove that
    • Critical idealism is able to refute naive realism only by itself assuming,
    • As soon as the critical idealist becomes conscious of the complete
    • modification of the representation “eye.” So-called critical idealism cannot
    • cannot prove critical idealism, and consequently cannot strip perceptions of
    • cannot have them. But critical idealism can speak of representations only.
    • It is impossible by means of critical idealism to gain insight into what
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter V: The Act of Knowing the World
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    • does the critical idealist when he bases his assertion, The world is my
    • The correctness of critical idealism is one thing, the power of conviction
    • is related to second floor, so is naive realism related to critical idealism.
    • critical idealist, acknowledges a real existence at all, then his sole aim
    • But the critical idealist may go as far as to say: I am confined to the
    • but my representation. An idealist of this kind will then either deny the
    • To this kind of critical idealist the whole world seems a dream, in the face
    • idealist then comes to maintain: “All reality transforms itself into a
    • common factor in the separate entities of the world, other than the ideal
    • any other world unity than this internally coherent ideal content which we
    • personal God, nor force, nor matter, nor idea-less will (Schopenhauer), is
    • them into the ideal system of our concepts and ideas.
    • ideal” mirror-picture of the world, but nothing of the world itself. To
    • and ideas. In contrast to the content of perception given to us from
    • idealism brings forward for the subjective nature of perceptions, collapses,
    • is asserted is incorrect. Critical idealism does not base its proof on the
    • the ideal connections of perceptions (that is, what can be discovered
    • purely ideal one, that is, it can be expressed only by means of concepts.
    • modern physiology and the critical idealism based on it. This view confuses
    • an ideal relation (that of the object to the subject) with a process which
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VI: The Human Individuality
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    • reaches up with his feelings farthest into the region of the ideal. There
    • are people in whom even the most general ideas that enter their heads bear,
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VII: Are There Limits to Knowledge?
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    • an ideal one. The dualist, in other words, splits up the process of cognition
    • between the objects beside the conceptual ones. In other words, the ideal
    • else, especially the world of ideas, as unreal, as “merely ideal.” What we
    • ideally, is not regarded by naive consciousness as being real in the same
    • sense. Something grasped “merely as idea” is regarded as a chimera until
    • addition to the ideal evidence of his thinking, the naive man demands the
    • to provide ideal counterparts of perceptions. For things themselves, they have
    • seen or could be seen, are real. The one idea of the tulip, is to him an
    • “merely” an idea, not a reality. Thus, this world view finds
    • has to allow for the existence of something ideal besides the perceptions. He
    • perceive it. The relation, which is purely ideal, is arbitrarily made into
    • idealism. Its hypothetical forces are imperceptible entities endowed with
    • of existence which thinking mediates, namely the concept (the idea), as
    • sum of perceptions and their conceptual (ideal) relations. Then metaphysical
    • principles, the so-called real principle and the ideal principle, have equal
    • When the metaphysical realist maintains that beside the ideal relation
    • conscious ideal relationship with my world of perceptions, but with the real
    • because it unites one-sided realism with idealism in a higher unity.
    • realities. Instead of forces, the monist has ideal connections which he attains
    • content of the soul only an ideal representation of the world. For them,
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VIII: The Factors of Life
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    • perceptions ideal definitions, and these relate themselves to one another
    • ideally in the same way as it defines all other perceptions, placing this as
    • the ideal definitions are the concepts and ideas. Thinking, therefore, first
    • life-definition of our personality. Through it we lead a purely ideal
    • life would be exhausted in establishing purely ideal relations between
    • perceptions to ourselves not merely ideally, through concepts, but also, as
    • a more genuine life of the personality than in the purely ideal element of
    • factor, the concept or idea. This is why in actual life, feelings, like
    • “I” relates purely ideally (conceptually) the perception to itself, and
    • a purely ideal factor is just as much a merely perceived object as any
    • insufficient. Both demand, side by side with an ideal-principle of
    • mediation. Besides the ideal principle attainable through knowledge, there is
    • insofar as it relates itself ideally to the rest of the world.
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter IX: The Idea of Freedom
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    • Chapter IX: The Idea of Freedom
    • concept through pure intuition from the ideal sphere. Such a concept
    • me, but is the ideal and therefore the universal content of my intuition. As
    • content of moral ideas to certain experiences (perceptions). But the highest
    • welfare will first ask what his ideals will contribute to this general
    • idea-content of the action alone is effective as its motive.
    • which is determined solely through its ideal content.
    • situation, and yet at the same time be determined purely ideally by
    • certain level, but at a higher level it coincides with the idea that arises
    • Men differ greatly in their capacity for intuition. In one person ideas
    • for intuition functions in the face of a given situation. The sum of ideas
    • universality of the idea-world, is individually constituted in each human
    • moment I have grasped the idea of it. This alone makes it my action. The
    • have a deed in mind, according to an idea, cannot set my standard as a moral
    • idea-content of the world. In particular instances such aims are usually
    • rather the universal world of ideas which lights up within this organism. My
    • general species, man; the fact that something ideal comes to expression in a
    • are twelve to the dozen; through the particular form of the idea, by means
    • of what expresses itself as an ideal within my organism, do I distinguish
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter X: Philosophy of Freedom and Monism
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    • reached when the moral command (moral idea) has been separated from every
    • who is incapable of bringing forth moral ideas through intuition, will have to
    • significance to the idea compared with perception. And the idea can come to
    • as they bring intuitive ideas to realization, human beings pursue solely
    • particular purpose. For the world of ideas expresses itself not in a
    • ideas realized in moral life are of the same kind as those worked out by
    • is also impossible to see either the idea of knowledge or the idea of
    • contradiction.” For an insight that recognizes how ideas are intuitively
    • of the world of ideas man penetrates in cognition into something which
    • is universal for all men, but when he derives from that same idea world the
    • idea world by means of the same activity which, as a general human one,
    • he unfolds in the spiritual ideal process of cognition. For this reason what
    • cognitive ideas and the individual character of moral ideas, when experienced
    • other ideas are available than those which can be applied only to something
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XI: World Purpose and Life Purpose
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    • necessary to have not merely an ideal connection (the law in it) of the
    • place something perceptible where only ideal factors are to be recognized. In
    • ideal connections of nature he sees not only imperceptible forces but also
    • realization of an idea does a purpose arise. And ideas are effective in a
    • Only by human beings are ideas realized according to purpose. It is
    • therefore inadmissible to speak of the embodiment of ideas through history.
    • conditioned by an idea of this limb, floating in the air, but by the
    • not determined and conditioned by an idea of it floating in the air,
    • form a totality. But since all perceptions are based on laws (ideas) which
    • between single parts of a perceptual totality is just the ideal concord
    • between the single parts of the idea totality contained in the perceptual
    • idea floating in the air, then this is a misleading way of putting it,
    • an animal is not determined by an idea floating in the air, but indeed is
    • determined by an idea inborn in it and constituting the law of its nature.
    • It is just because the idea is not outside of the object, but is effective
    • that the beings of nature are determined from outside (whether by an idea
    • have placed the idea of the working of the machine into its foundation. The
    • machine thereby becomes a perceptual object with a corresponding idea. The
    • the ideal connection between cause and effect. Causes are present in nature
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XII: Moral Imagination
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    • means of thinking from the totality of his world of ideas. The reason an
    • unfree spirit singles out a particular intuition from his idea world in
    • commands they have laid down. He has purely ideal reasons which move him to
    • of ideas. Therefore what the free spirit needs in order to carry out his
    • ideas, in order to bring them to fruition, is moral imagination. Moral
    • faculty of moral ideation
    • Moral imagination and the faculty of moral ideation can become objects of
    • earlier ones, but not that as much as a single new moral idea could be
    • ideas develop out of earlier ones, but from the moral concepts of an earlier
    • ancestral species. True as it is that the moral ideas of the individual have
    • individual is morally barren if he himself has no moral ideas.
    • The appearance of completely new moral ideas through moral imagination is,
    • cannot be experienced by means of ideas. This approach would then be
    • (ethical ideas) as objects of observation. For, although the
    • attributed to the human will, insofar as this will brings purely ideal
    • an image of such an ideal intuition, we feel it to be free.
    • reality what I want, what I have set before me as the idea of my doing,
    • through the experience: In my will an ideal intuition comes to realization.
    • possibility of being carried by pure ideal intuition. This can be attained
    • because in ideal intuition nothing is active but its own self-sustaining
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XIII: The Value of Life
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    • an ideal factor (wisdom) in the world, but even grants it equal significance
    • really overcomes egoism in the true sense of the word. Moral ideas are
    • pessimists, moral ideals are not strong enough to overcome egoism, but they
    • ideals. No ethics can take from him the pleasure he has in the fulfillment
    • ideas can set up their control where they are not opposed by a strong longing
    • when it is carried by ideal intuitions; it achieves its aim even though the
    • Moral ideals spring from the moral imagination of man. Their attainment depends
    • for moral ideals when his moral imagination is active enough to impart to him
    • If a man strives for sublimely great ideals, it is because they are the
    • ordinary cravings by those who lack ideals, is of little significance.
    • Idealists revel spiritually in translating their ideals into reality.
    • for pleasure. A man without imagination creates no moral ideas. They must be
    • lacking. For a man who is harmoniously developed, the so-called ideas of what
    • ideals to be attainable only if man exterminates his own will, does not know
    • that these ideals are willed by man just as much as the satisfaction of
    • and to reject all moral ideas which they have not produced, in order that
  • Title: PoSA: The Consequences of Monism
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    • Not even the most subjective orthodox idealist will deny that we live within
    • questions whether we also reach ideally, i.e., in our cognition, what we
    • reflection) to devise the nature of reality, but when we find the ideas that
    • the common ideal unity of all multiplicity. The one world of ideas expresses
    • this particular human being; as soon as he looks toward the idea-world that
    • life in reality itself. The ideal content of another human being is also my
    • the total idea-world, and to that extent individuals differ one from another
    • Hartmann's unconscious primordial Being. composed of idea and will. is a
    • The monist does not deny the ideal; in fact he considers a perceptual
    • content, lacking its ideal counterpart, not to be a complete reality; but in
    • itself to a description of perceptions without penetrating to their ideal
    • Therefore it can acknowledge no ideas that refer to objective factors lying
    • hypothetical metaphysics. All ideas of this kind which humanity has
    • The idea that realizes itself in a deed, man detaches from the unitary
    • idea-world, making it the foundation of his will. Consequently, what come to
    • his world of ideas, or which others give him from that world. When he gets
    • impulse is indeed determined ideally in the unitary idea world, but in
    • translated into reality. The reason for the actual translation of an idea
    • into reality through man, monism finds only in man himself. For idea to
    • be the realization of ideal intuitions. No other deeds, if considered
  • Title: PoSA: First Appendix
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    • account fully. Then to begin with, one becomes a transcendental idealist. As
    • transcendental idealist one has to give up hope that anything from a
    • then we have transcendental idealism. But if the answer is: They are on the one
    • naive realist; he who answers: Three, is a transcendental idealist; but he who
    • is a transcendental idealist; but one answering: Six (namely, two persons as
  • Title: PoSA: Second Appendix
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    • philosophers have truly been artists in concepts. For them, human ideas
    • technique. Abstract thinking thereby gains concrete, individual life. Ideas
    • regarded in the sense that man must bow down to ideas and let them enslave
    • him; rather the relation should be that man conquers the world of ideas in
    • One must be able to confront the idea in living experience, or else fall

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