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  • Title: PoSA: Contents
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    • The Reality of Freedom
  • Title: PoSA: Foreword
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    • Rudolf Steiner's literary estate is realized.
    • appreciation of one of the really significant thinkers of this century.
  • Title: PoSA: Introduction - Rudolf Steiner as a Philosopher
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    • difference in their views. Following Kant, Hartmann believed that true reality
    • our consciousness are nothing but an unreal reflection of reality. In
    • consciousness can enter the true realities by means of strengthening of our
    • The unconscious realities of the
    • above. We are by no means separated from the realities of the world forever,
    • senses, then we are able to experience the world in its reality. Steiner
    • with his thinking, man lives in the reality of the world as a spiritual world,
    • and the physical view. To him both were parts of the reality. Whereupon
    • Man has to let things speak to him in a twofold way: one part of their reality
    • man. Though Kant had realized that we have to use the concept of the inner
    • functionality if we really want to understand the various products of
    • nature, and that we cannot grasp the reality without this concept, he still
    • reality.
    • knowledge since Kant: that man is never able to grasp reality. In the
    • experiences in reality, as the reflection of the mirror is to the original.
    • the reality which is bound to the brain; this “reflection,” of course,
    • reality, a spiritual world, but it does not appear to us as such.
    • its true completion in the realms of its practical effects. Steiner had good
    • other, in the same way, in the realm of ethics we have to differentiate between
    • reality. There is something very special in relation to the idea of Man:
  • Title: PoSA: Preface to the Revised Edition, 1918
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    • real insight into this region provides man with what he needs for the
    • recognition of the fact that man is living within the reality of a spiritual
    • world. In this book the attempt is made to justify knowledge of the realm of
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter I: The Conscious Human Deed
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    • really all of one kind? Should the deed of a soldier on the field of battle,
    • distinguish the knower from the doer, and the one who really matters is lost
    • motive does it become active and real. It is, therefore, quite correct that the
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter II: The Fundamental Urge For Knowledge
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    • otherwise than reckon the perceptions given to the senses, the realm of matter,
    • to the material world. Thus the “I” belongs to the realm of spirit,
    • we have to translate our intentions into realities with the help of material
    • gained by this, either, for here again the question, which really originates
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter III: Thinking in the Service of Understanding the World
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    • We shall consider later whether this activity of mine is really a product of
    • this activity is really ours, or whether we accomplish it according to
    • reality, subject and object, appearance and thing-in-itself, ego and
    • realize that man is not a first link in creation, but the last. Therefore,
    • has been referred to as a fact which reveals itself to a really unprejudiced
    • to fail to realize that it is only in the activity of thinking that the
    • within thinking. However, this would only justify one in saying: Real thinking
    • and through. Anyone who really takes the trouble to understand all that has to
    • to be so. In reality one is observing only the results of an unconscious
    • the realm of thinking, one cannot come to what causes it.
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter IV: The World as Perception
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    • impression as to the real distance until a second perception contradicts the
    • His opinion was that man, from the moment he realizes the significance the
    • I also know that it is I who see it. I also realize that something takes
    • are no real beings other than God and human spirits. What we call “world” is
    • reality the result of a line of thought which runs as follows: The naive man
    • mere subjective manifestations. I have no right to speak of a real eye, but
    • calls naive realism, makes the mistake of characterizing one perception
    • realism which it apparently refutes. Critical idealism wants to prove that
    • Critical idealism is able to refute naive realism only by itself assuming,
    • in naive-realistic fashion, that one's own organism has objective existence.
    • those which naive realism assumes to have objective existence, he can no
    • be proved without borrowing something from naive realism. Naive realism can
    • reflective, abstract consciousness. If he really does this, then he has
    • For only my real eye and my real hand could have the representations “sun”
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter V: The Act of Knowing the World
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    • to the naive-realistic suppositions as to man's psychological and
    • naive realism, when consistently thought through, leads to results which
    • is related to second floor, so is naive realism related to critical idealism.
    • matter which lie behind them, and alone really “are.” If the philosopher, as
    • critical idealist, acknowledges a real existence at all, then his sole aim
    • is to gain knowledge of this real existence indirectly by means of his
    • own dream-pictures are real things, and the wise ones who see through the
    • world. We then have in consciousness not the real I, but only our
    • idealist then comes to maintain: “All reality transforms itself into a
    • his representations to real things: in either case, life must lose all
    • illusionism, the second is called transcendental realism by
    • Both these views have this in common with naive realism that they seek to
    • An essential question for an adherent of transcendental realism must be: How
    • would at once turn from them to the real soul behind them. Things become
    • see through the dream and to refer it to the real connections of things, but
    • takes the world as it is and regards things as real in the sense in which he
    • totality functions in such a way that from every reality the elements
    • separate, when in reality they are not separate at all. Nowhere, for
    • self-contained, but one side of the total reality. The other side is the
    • be immediate reality. This philosopher believes we can never approach the
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VI: The Human Individuality
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    • the same as those which exist outside. Therefore, in reality I am the
    • the explanation as to why our representations can represent reality to us. The
    • complete reality of something is submitted to us in the moment of
    • Reality appears to us as perception and concept, and the subjective
    • representative of this reality is — representation.
    • saturated with reality than is our thinking contemplation of the world. But
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VII: Are There Limits to Knowledge?
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    • that the elements for explaining reality are to be taken
    • organization that determines the fact that the full, complete reality of
    • overcomes this duality by combining the two elements of reality: the
    • of a single reality, which are kept apart merely by our organization, but,
    • Every kind of existence which is assumed outside the realm of perception and
    • arises that real life cannot be evolved out of this principle which is
    • discover the other part of reality also. Only when the egohood has again
    • combined for itself the two elements of reality which are indivisibly united
    • reality.
    • is considered to be real, that is, the subject is considered to be
    • really (dynamically) influenced by the object. This real process is said not
    • is said to have an objective reality (independent of the subject), the
    • perception a subjective reality. This subjective reality is said to be
    • consciousness. The objectively real process in the subject, by means of which
    • objectively real. The bond of unity which connects things with one another
    • abstract scheme of concepts if he did not insist on “real” connections
    • dualist, and he seeks, in addition, “real principles” with which to support
    • Let us examine these “real principles” a little more closely. The naive man
    • (naive realist) regards the objects of external experience as realities. The
    • the proof of their reality. “Nothing exists that cannot be perceived” is, in
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter VIII: The Factors of Life
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    • conceptual life-content. The naive realist even sees in the life of feeling
    • realism, that everything that can be perceived is real, it follows that
    • feeling is the guarantee of the reality of one's own personality. Monism,
    • as a complete reality. For monism, feeling is an incomplete reality which,
    • Nevertheless, here again the naive realist believes that he has before him
    • something far more real than can be reached by thinking. He sees in the will
    • will he has really got hold of a corner of the universal process. Whereas
    • believes that in his will he is experiencing a real process quite directly.
    • for him a direct principle of reality. His own will appears to him as a special
    • existence, a real principle also. And this with a certain justification. But
    • since for this so-called real principle, perceiving is our only means of
    • also supposed to exist a real principle which, although it can be
    • feeling and philosophy of will are both forms of naive realism; they both
    • adhere to the principle: What is directly perceived is real. Compared with
    • naive realism in its original form, they are guilty of the further
    • do when they adhere in general to the principle: What is perceived is real.
    • Philosophy of will becomes metaphysical realism when it considers will also
    • criterion of reality. The philosophy of will as a form of metaphysical
    • realism is open to the criticism indicated in the preceding chapter; it has
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter IX: The Idea of Freedom
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    • relation if one observes it without prejudice. A real understanding of such
    • experienced as a self-contained reality. In order to explain thinking as
    • activity of a living reality. Indeed one can say that he who wants to grasp
    • the reality of spirit in the form in which it first presents itself
    • the perceptions to be the full reality. Further, one will build up a
    • pattern of his world of perceptions. But if he realizes what he has
    • a part of reality is present, and that the other part that belongs to it and
    • first allows it to appear as full reality, is experienced in the act of
    • as thinking, he will also see not a shadowy copy of some reality, but spiritual
    • reality itself. And of this he can say that it becomes present in his
    • sphere of pure spirit. Only through an intuition can the reality of thinking
    • is it possible to gain a real understanding of the body-soul organization of
    • do with the arising of the I-consciousness within thinking. The real “I”
    • An action is a real act of will only when a momentary impulse of action, in
    • to ever greater perfection; 3) the realization of individual aims of morality,
    • standards do play their justified part. The goal consists in the realization
    • of freedom realizes itself in human nature, will be seen in what follows.
    • harmony of the idea-world. He does not realize that the idea-world which is
    • wants to live out his intuitions, I mine. If we both really draw
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter X: Philosophy of Freedom and Monism
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    • man who regards as real only what he can see with his eyes and
    • The highest level of development of naive realism in the moral sphere is
    • metaphysical realist who does not look for the reality of things in the
    • human soul's participation in this reality through thinking, but who
    • hypothetically imagines reality as an addition to actual experience.
    • Extra-human moral rules, therefore, always accompany metaphysical realism.
    • Metaphysical realism cannot do otherwise than seek the origin of morality
    • believe myself to be free, whereas in reality all my actions are but results
    • ...” “Existence in its reality is the incarnation of the Godhead
    • kind of metaphysical realism which does not experience, but infers something
    • extra-human as the true reality.
    • Naive as well as metaphysical realism, in order to be consistent, must deny
    • Naive realism kills freedom through subjection to the authority either of a
    • voice which is interpreted as “conscience;” the metaphysical realist,
    • Monism must acknowledge the partial justification of naive realism
    • sphere of physical and spiritual reality, then monism cannot enter the
    • realization in himself.
    • The moral commands which the metaphysical realist merely infers and cannot
    • bring to realization the decisions and intentions of another Being, but
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XI: World Purpose and Life Purpose
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    • belongs to a special sequence of phenomena. In reality one can only speak of
    • only upon the perception of the cause. The effect can have a real influence
    • really, i.e. by means of a perceptible process, influence the cause.
    • real only what is perceptible, attempts — as we said before — to
    • imperceptible real purposes. Man makes his tools to fit a purpose; on the
    • same pattern, the naive realist lets the Creator build up all organisms.
    • realization of an idea does a purpose arise. And ideas are effective in a
    • realistic sense in man alone. Therefore human life has only the purpose and
    • Only by human beings are ideas realized according to purpose. It is
    • or the realization of the moral world order, and so on, are untenable from
    • — A purpose and a plan, however, that come to realization only within
    • rubbish-heap of partial or complete, imaginary or real examples showing lack
    • in all its realms, then I find it just as droll.” —
    • absolute Being has realized its purposes. For monism, along with the
    • something higher is revealed than purpose realized in human life. And
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XII: Moral Imagination
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    • into action. But his action will belong to perceptible reality. What he brings
    • The concept will be realized in a particular concrete event. As concept, it
    • people with moral imagination are also morally productive in the real sense
    • from others, and skillfully imprint these into actual reality. The opposite
    • so. By evolution is meant the real development of the later out
    • world is meant that the later (more perfect) organic forms are real descendents
    • ones come about as real facts, that if we are given the concept of the imperfect
    • intuitions to realization. For these do not come about through external
    • to desire or not to desire, as one pleases, is the real meaning of the dogma of
    • reality what I want, what I have set before me as the idea of my doing,
    • neither wish for nor imagine than the freedom to let one's will realize itself
    • through the experience: In my will an ideal intuition comes to realization.
    • in human nature. Man is free to the degree that he is able to realize in his
  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XIII: The Value of Life
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    • not genuinely real: it is only that we see as evil a lesser degree of good.
    • But is the above really based on experience?
    • In reality, even the opposite is correct. Striving (desire), as such, gives
    • Feeling does not calculate, and what matters for a real
    • impression. Now it is of real benefit for an ambitious person that this is
    • over which a veil is drawn, he really did experience in all their intensity,
    • and therefore he really gives them a wrong valuation on his balance-sheet of
    • as reality, but also the feelings attached to the illusions. For this reason
    • must point to this surplus in life in the form of perception. For reality is
    • a time in a business when such losses are really present that no credit any
    • unattainable, do they devote themselves to their real task. In this way the
    • really overcomes egoism in the true sense of the word. Moral ideas are
    • goal. And if one accepts the view that the real bearer of the pain of the
    • experience the pleasure of realization even when we have to bear a much
    • consequence for the human will. The cases in which we really make the value
    • realize that by its very nature the human will is not influenced by this
    • ethics that can invent life-tasks other than the realization of the
    • is the nature of all real will. Ethics does not depend on the
    • content of his own nature and their realization will bring him a joy
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  • Title: PoSA: Chapter XIV: Individuality and Species
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    • with perception in order to take hold of full reality (cp. p. 29 ff.), no
  • Title: PoSA: The Consequences of Monism
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    • entry into physical and spiritual realms is sought. One looking for another
    • this part with the rest of the cosmos is present in reality; it is broken
    • reality in its true character as a self-enclosed unity, whereas the
    • organization. (cp. p. 29 ff.). Recognition of the reality in contrast to the
    • thinking. Science has striven to recognize perceptions as realities by
    • significance, the real reason for the unity of things was sought in some
    • It was not realized that thinking encompasses both subjective and objective
    • in one grasp, and that in the union of perception with concept full reality
    • subjective. This content is not derived from the subject but from reality.
    • It is that part of reality that our perceiving cannot reach. It is
    • recognize that the concept is something real, thinks of it only in that
    • its existence is possible only in a real connection with nature. An abstract
    • concept has no reality in itself, any more than a perception, taken by
    • itself, has any reality. The perception is the part of reality that is given
    • intuition, cp. p. 32 ff.). Our spiritual organization tears reality into
    • into the universe, is full reality. If we consider the mere perception by
    • itself, we do not have reality, but a disconnected chaos; if we consider by
    • concepts. The abstract concept does not contain reality, but thinking
    • a reality (that we are rooted in it with our real existence). He only
    • reality. When we observe with thinking, we carry out a process that in
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  • Title: PoSA: First Appendix
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    • only a representative of a real world which I cannot consciously reach. In
    • that real world lies the unknown cause of the content of my consciousness.
    • In that world is also my real being, of which likewise I have in my
    • its corresponding reality in his real being, independent of his
    • consciousness. This reality reacts on my fundamental but unconscious being
    • really perceived the thinking of the other. For the direct perceptions, which
    • and reality.
    • standpoint and takes perceived phenomena to be realities existing outside of
    • consciousness merely within one's own consciousness. It is not realized that
    • any reason, is a naive realist. However, this standpoint is impossible, for
    • Hartmann the only possible standpoint is the third one, transcendental realism.
    • this he considers my standpoint to be — would in reality have to confess
    • form or another of naive realism. If the answer is: They are intermittent,
    • recognize transcendental realism. — 2) If three persons sit at a table,
    • naive realist; he who answers: Three, is a transcendental idealist; but he who
    • answers: Four, is a transcendental realist. This last answer does indeed
    • persons are present? One answering: Two, is a naive realist; one answering:
    • two consciousnesses), is a transcendental realist. One wishing to prove that
    • only grasps the perceptual content and takes this to be the reality, is
    • a naive realist; he does not make it clear to himself that he can actually
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  • Title: PoSA: Second Appendix
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    • convinced that one must raise oneself up into the ethereal realm of concepts
    • enter the realm of pure thought.
    • reality. In exactly the same sense philosophy is an art. All genuine
    • made knowledge into a real organism, ruled by its own laws; the reality of
  • Title: PoSA: Inside Dust Jacket
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    • What is my life really

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