Pitch (Ethos and Pathos), Note Values,
Dynamics, Changes of Tempo 
Today, I will try to
pass on some things which will bring our studies of tone eurythmy to
a provisional conclusion, so that a stimulation for the advance of the
substance of tone eurythmy will have been given. The first step in this
direction will be to digest those things I have given. Then, a little
later on, it will be necessary to hold a further series of lectures,
either on tone eurythmy or speech eurythmy,  for it is quite clear
that a living stream of development has to be maintained. I have frequently
said that eurythmy is only just beginning (perhaps only an attempted
beginning), and it must be developed further.
From yesterday's study,
which dealt more with the bodily aspect of the human being, and with
the way in which the body is brought into activity in the movements
of eurythmy, I should like to pass over today to the aspect of soul,
and make clear to you how the life of the soul is brought to expression
in every single movement or gesture. Your attitude to eurythmy must
always be such as to prevent any form of pedantry. You will realize
more and more that many things can be expressed either in one way or
another, and that in art it is a question of taste. And with several
things you will have to consult your own feelings: ‘What special means
must I employ to bring this or that to expression?’
Let us consider an effectual
means of expressing that most essential element of music, the phrase
in Melos. Let us consider the progression of the phrase (since
it really is the phrase which truly carries music into being), and direct
our attention to that which gives the phrase its actual content, and
makes it a true means of expressing the musical element: pitch. Further,
we must distinguish note values and dynamics. The three elements of
pitch, note values and dynamics really give us the inner content of
the musical phrase. The more external aspect will be considered later.
Now everything musical,
in so far as it is wrought out of the inner nature of the human being,
comes from feeling, from the realm of feeling. And it is true to say
that nothing is musical which is not in some way rooted in human feeling.
Similarly, when music streams over into eurythmic movement, everything
which is brought to life in this movement must also be rooted in feeling.
When we studied the anatomical, physiological aspect of the matter yesterday,
we saw that in its more physical, bodily aspect, movement springs from
feeling. The scale is the human being, but actually the human being
as he encloses his chest, or in so far as his chest is able to be revealed
outwards via the collar-bone. The chest is connected with feeling, and
carries within it the central organ of feeling, the heart. And the physical
characteristic we touched upon yesterday simply points to the fact that
in music we have to do with feeling.
If I may put it in this
way, feeling can be coloured either more towards the head- or more towards
the limb-organization. Should feeling tend in the direction of the head,
it is expressed so to speak in the roundabout way of the intellect.
Now I must beg you not to misunderstand this, and think that it is my
intention to intellectualize the musical element. I have no such intention!
It is a fact, however, that precisely in the element of pitch, something
is manifest which causes feeling to tend in the direction of the intellect,
only it does not reach the intellect, but remains in the realm of feeling.
And so a musician need not in the least be interested when the intellectual
physicist comes along and speaks of the frequency and the pattern of
sound-waves. The musician can justifiably answer: ‘This may be all very
well, and so on, but it has nothing to do with me. I am not interested
in this.’ An intellectual conception of music leads away from the sphere
of music. It may be left to the physicist.  That element of music
which tends towards the intellect is also felt. Pitch, in all its differing
manifestations, is an experience of feeling. And it is just because
music inclines away from the intellect that the head has so little to
do in tone eurythmy. Indeed in speech eurythmy, too, the head should
play practically no part, though naturally it should humanly accompany
the movements carried out by the speech eurythmist.
Of course, in a humorous
poem it would not be good for a eurythmist to make a face as if he had
drunk a pint or so of vinegar! This would obviously be out of place.
Generally speaking, the whole mental attitude should be suited to the
content of the words. But if anyone attempted to do eurythmy with the
face (and some people miss mime or a special play of the facial features)
we could well answer that this would be equivalent in real speech eurythmy
to someone accompanying his speaking with grimaces.
In tone eurythmy, exactly
the same as in speech eurythmy, the head need not remain inactive. But
just where it is a concern of manifesting the intellectual tendency
of the musical element, that is pitch, the activity of the head should
be restrained as much as possible. Otherwise interpretation, or the
element of seeking meaning, enters into the musical element, and this
is its ruination. This introduces thinking into art, and the moment
you begin to think, artistic activity ceases. I am not saying that art
may not present thoughts, but thoughts must be there already in finished
form, they cannot just be made up on the spot. A majestic, elevated
thought may, for instance, be contrasted with lesser thoughts, or an
idea may frequently recur in a train of thought, just as a musical motif
may recur, for then the musical element is effective in the . train
of thought. This is certainly possible. But you must not be thinking!
 The same even applies to poetry. When a poet begins thinking he
ceases to be a poet. Certainly he may embody thought in artistic form
— but that is a very different matter.
Now as we have already
seen, pitch (which lives in the musical phrase) initially finds expression
in movements made in the upward-downward direction. The expression of
pitch is up, down. Why should the movements be upwards and downwards?
What lives in pitch?
You see, in the case of
ascending pitch we feel a rising up into the spiritual element, in the
musical element a rising up into the spiritual, rising with the ascending
pitch. This is exceedingly significant. What really happens here is
that the astral body and ego ascend. The human being is freed from his
physical and etheric bodies. If he were to do this in an inartistic
or even an anti-artistic manner, then he would faint. If he were to
go out of his physical body without sufficient preparation, he would
faint. The experience of musical sound (so long as it remains an experience
of musical sound, of Melos) permits us to pass out of the physical
body. Then we instantly come back into it. In ascending pitch there
is a continuous rising out of the physical body, an identification of
the human being with the spiritual element. In tone eurythmy every ascending
movement basically signifies ethos. Ethos of the human being is a uniting
of the soul with the spiritual weaving and essence. Ascending pitch:
pitch descends, and we are consequently obliged to follow, to make the
movements lower in space (making each movement lower than the one preceding),
we sink more deeply into the physical body with the astral body and
ego. We are united more with the physical element. Descending pitch
signifies a closer connection than normal with the physical element.
This is pathos. Ascending pitch: ethos. Descending pitch: pathos.
If you observe the unfolding
of a piece of music with sound musical feeling, you will see that this
is always the case. You will always experience ethos, that is to say,
a uniting with the spiritual element, when the pitch carries you upwards.
You will always feel something of the nature of pathos present in the
music when the pitch causes you to descend. This can find expression
in change of posture, and may indeed be specially clearly expressed
by the movements of tone eurythmy.
Note values: note values
are the feeling element as such. The faculty of feeling tends neither
in the direction of the intellect nor in the direction of the will,
but lives in its own element in note values. From what I have said about
the way in which rests, for instance, or the pedal- point may be expressed
in eurythmy, you will already have realized that feeling is active in
note values. For it is indeed a fact that feeling is active to the greatest
extent in note values. You need only recall in a feeling-way what you
experience concerning a semibreve (whole-note), let us say, or a minim,
crotchet or quaver (half-note, quarter-note or eighth-note). The shorter
the length of the notes, the more your soul becomes inwardly filled,
inwardly more formed and shaped. A vivid means of musical expression
is made possible to a high degree by the contradistinction between notes
which are short and those of longer duration. Long, slow notes denote
a certain indifferent emptiness of soul (to put things baldly), an indifferent
emptiness of soul. And in this fullness in the soul or this emptiness
in the soul, the second factor, the actual feeling element, is active.
The feeling concerning long notes may be likened (there is a real resemblance
here) to that of waiting for something which still does not want to
come. pn the other hand, when someone continually seeks to stimulate
us to activity, this is akin to the feeling- experience underlying short
The head may be brought
to our assistance when it is a question of experiencing note values;
indeed, a certain use of the head in eurythmy now becomes necessary.
But the question is: How may this be done?
You see, in pitch, the
soul is purely concerned with itself. Consequently in pitch, the soul
rises up to God or sinks down to the Devil,  living to the extreme
completely within its own essence.
In note values a certain
enjoyment and participation in the world outside, a contact with the
world, exists. A relationship of the human being with the outer world
is expressed in note values. For this reason an aesthetic and pleasing
impression will be created when, in the case of short notes (beginning
perhaps with minims, or half-notes,  and working up in ever-increased
activity) you look in the direction of what you are doing with your
arm, fingers or hand, looking at your own eurythmy, carefully following
your own movements with your eyes.
When, alternatively, you
have long semibreves (whole-notes), do not look towards but rather away
from your movement, either straight in front of you or in some other
direction. You will see that although this does not fully express the
feeling involved here (this must be expressed through sustaining the
note or through moving on), it will be accompanied in the right manner.
There can be no doubt about the fact that in note values we have to
do with feeling. That is why the head may be brought to our aid. The
head is not used here as a little interpreter; it simply expresses its
participation in the feelings, and that looks quite pleasing.
The third element is dynamics.
In the phrase, dynamics, the realm of feeling (which is always the source
of the musical element), are coloured towards the element of will. The
will as such does not come into play in the musical element, for the
musical element always remains in the sphere of feeling. But just as
in pitch, where feeling tends to be coloured towards the intellectual
element, so in dynamics, feeling tends to be coloured towards the will.
Here it is somewhat different than with the head. In the head, that
which is manifested in the arms as movement is brought to rest. The
jaws can only move a little; they are at rest. Indeed the head is entirely
at rest. On the other hand, the legs and feet do retain a certain similarity
to the arms and hands, so the movements of the arms and hands might
possibly be accompanied with parallel movements of the feet when expressing
a certain emphasis, or a certain dynamic marking. If this were not so,
there would be no dancing. Eurythmy should not become dancing, but there
may be times when a tendency towards dancing may be a justifiable means
of expression (when the dynamics demand that feeling be coloured through
the element of will). In musical dynamics, the human being's relationship
with the world is even more relevant. Only pitch remains entirely inward.
Note values bring the human being into a certain connection with the
outer world. Dynamics make this complete, for forte gains its strength
from the will, whereas in piano the will-impulse is lacking. Here, then,
the movements of hand and arm can be reinforced by corresponding leg
movements. These movements, of course, have to be graceful in the highest
sense of the word; they should not be awkward, but have to be similar
in style to what the arms and hands do. You will feel then what the
legs have to do.
Dynamics may be substantially
supported if you are aware of the fact that increased dynamics find
is expressed by pointing the fingers, and a weakening of the sound makes
the fingers rounded, so you can achieve something very expressive. Just
think how much expression can be brought into the phrase which is already
very expressive from a musical point of view. Think, in the first place,
how we are able to express the phrase by emphasizing varied pitch in
the way we have learned. This may be accompanied by bringing out note
values by a use of the head, looking either towards or away. The dynamics
of the phrase may be lit up by a pointing or rounding of the fingers.
This gives you the possibility of becoming a very expressive being within
the phrase. You will be able to express much when you observe this variety
in the phrase, in the continuation of the phrase, and so on.
There is another way of
accompaniment which can increase your means of expression. You see,
with certain very high notes (notes which ascend two octaves or more
above middle C)  you may follow the movements with your eyes. Try,
however, not to conjure up an active gesture of looking (looking gives
an impression of note lengths), but let your eyes be swept up with the
movement. And so when you would especially like to express very high
notes, you will follow the movement with your eyes, too. You will try,
though, not to produce the gesture of looking, but of being swept up
with your eyes. Produce the gesture of being swept up with your eyes,
as if they  would do this movement — and they should be swept up
with the movement! In such a case the eyes do not look, but turn in
the direction of the movement. Here we have still another means of expressing
the things that are present in the phrase.
These things are initially
bound up with the inner essence of the phrase, with the actual life
of the phrase. And if you concern yourselves further with the phrase
you will actually find, fundamentally, when you use these things; that
you will be able to follow transforming and developing phrases.
I should just like to
add the following. It is, of course, necessary that everything we have
studied in these lectures (which have aimed at deepening eurythmy) should
be developed with particular inner activity.
Let us now take the development
of a phrase as it progresses through various musical sentences. Here
we are able to differentiate whether it is developed in the form of
repetition — so that the development signifies a certain intensification,
a confirmation of the original phrase. In such a case, if other aspects
do not indicate the contrary, much can be expressed by the treatment
of the form.
Let us suppose that you
have to carry out some form such as this (a) in a certain piece of music.
Quite apart from what you express by means
of your body, this form has to be carried out. If you
follow your musical feelings you will be able to add, according to the
progression of the phrase, certain steps backwards and forwards, still
following the direction of the form (b)
If, however, the progression
of the phrase is such that a second phrase follows the previous one
similar to that between question and answer, it would be good if the
progression of the form were treated in this way (c) — with a
more complicated development introduced into the form.
Another means of expressing
either a sequence or an answering phrase, the repetitive sequence or
the contrast of phrases, is this. At specific points in the progression
of a phrase, where the progression of the phrase is specially felt (where,
let us say, a new metamorphosis of the phrase commences), the direction
of the form can be directed towards the right (b). If another phrase
is brought into conjunction with the first, at the point where this
second phrase begins, make a turn towards the left.
Such things make the movements
exceedingly expressive. And further, if you make the movements of this
latter type stronger in a four-bar phrase, let's say, and bring out
the eight-bar phrase (which has four main accents) by clearly showing
the alternating direction of left-right, then you will succeed in expressing
in eurythmy this plastically-formed development in the progression of
When you come to apply
the things we have been discussing, you will invariably reach a point
where, in some way or other, the essential nature of the musical element
is revealed in its onward progression. Here you actually pass out of
the inner experience inherent in the soul of Melos (as I'd
like to put it) and you approach instead the life of Melos.
We can certainly differentiate between the soul and the life of Melos.
And the element which is less bound up with the soul and more with the
life of Melos is tempo, especially tempo changes. The human
being, by living in time, has to live either at a quicker or slower
pace. This is something which exerts a certain influence on his or her
life from outside. A person certainly does not become someone else if
circumstances compel him or her to do something in a shorter time than
usual. It is not a question of becoming cleverer, or more stupid, but
simply of becoming quicker. It is, then, the external element of time
which causes increase of tempo
Now it is a fact that
in the musical element nearly everything depends upon changes, just
as in movement generally everything depends upon changes. For this reason,
change of tempo must be given special consideration in eurythmy. Let
us suppose that we have an increase in tempo. An increase in tempo may
not be shown simply by increased speed of movement, as this may be applied
for pitch, for note values, and so on, but the body must make an abrupt
movement (Ruck) towards the right. When you change to a retarded tempo,
the body must be drawn (Zug) towards the left. Here you have
a means of expressing change of tempo in such a way that the external
element in it is given its adequate place in the moulding of the phrase.
You will say: ‘What a
terrible amount there is to do!’ But bring imagination to your aid and
think how beautiful it will be when you carry out all this detail, how
articulated and expressive a piece of music will become when interpreted
in this way. A tempo remaining either quick or slow may be particularly
well expressed when, with a quick tempo, the head is turned forwards
to the right, and, with a slow tempo, backwards to the left. Naturally
this cannot be intellectually proved, but, as with everything in art,
has to be felt and experienced.
You will, then, have to
do many different things simultaneously, and by means of this simultaneous
attention to one thing and another, it will be possible for you in the
whole management of your body to go beyond yourself and enter into the
movement in such a way that you will succeed in giving a perfectly adequate
revelation of the musical element.
Now, in doing all these
things just feel how far we remove ourselves especially in tone eurythmy
from anything of the nature of mime. Mime can have no place in tone
eurythmy, and anything in the nature of dance is only permissible at
most as a faint undercurrent. It is only with deep bass notes that the
eurythmist may be tempted to add dance-like movements to colour his
eurythmy. In this way eurythmy will really be kept in a sphere which
justifies the name of ‘visible singing’. Eurythmy is not dancing, not
mime, but visible singing — a visible singing by means of which everything
sounding in one way or another in instrumental music may be expressed.
The feeling must never arise that we are dealing with anything other
than visible singing. Here we come across something very instructive.
With the means given here you will have no difficulty expressing anything
that is purely musical. Certain difficulties will only appear when you
have a musical phrase which you cannot bring to a conclusion. I am not
going to rail against what is called ‘continuous melody’, but you will
invariably experience difficulty when you try to express this in eurythmy.
As we saw yesterday, genuine cadences can be expressed in eurythmy.
But what always wants to move on (and not to come to a close) will hold
great difficulty in store for you when you try to find a means of expression
for it. I will suggest, then, that you accompany the passage where a
melody fades away, which just meanders on (as is frequently the case
with Wagner's ‘continuous melodic phrases’)  with some sort of movement,
but this, when you pursue it eurythmically, will in fact appear extraordinary,
will appear forced. In eurythmy it will appear laboured and artificial.
It cannot be otherwise.
It may well be said that
by its very nature, eurythmy will oblige people to return more and more
to the pure musical element. When you come to apply all the means of
expression of which I have been speaking, it will be necessary to engage
your feeling for phrasing in music to the utmost. If you do not divide
the separate phrases correctly, and are not clearly aware of how the
notes should be grouped together, and then try to apply what I have
discussed for a rest or a sustained note, it will appear ugly. Wrong
phrasing, or a note falsely grouped and included wrongly in a phrase
or allowed to remain isolated, will instantly be apparent. The very
moment you phrase wrongly, the movement will become uncouth and clumsy.
This is why it is of primary importance, when practising tone eurythmy,
first to come to terms with the larger matters. As soon, then, as you
have determined upon the phrasing and made up your mind about the progression
of the music, the next step will be to discuss the phrasing with your
pianist.  This simply belongs to the matter. When you are practising
it will be necessary first Co experiment and find your way into the
experience of the music. Only then will you realize what the effect
of this or that kind of movement will be. You will be filled with inner
warmth or inner cold. This is what the inner life is. A eurythmist may
often be able to feel how notes are grouped even better than the person
sitting at the instrument. It is really necessary to come to an understanding
with the musician so that the phrasing may be correspondingly carried
out. Of course, people do generally phrase correctly, but in eurythmy
it will be frequently noticeable that an accepted phrasing must be altered,
owing to the very nature of eurythmy. You will discover that several
matters need correction.
Now, these are the things
I wanted to give you in this course of lectures. In the first place
it should be a stimulus to deepen tone eurythmy, and eurythmy in general.
If in the near future it is shown that, through this, much in eurythmy
(in tone eurythmy in particular) achieves a greater degree of perfection,
and if it may be seen that speech eurythmy too receives fresh life through
what has been said, we will hold another course. In this way we shall
be able to develop ever further what today is still only a beginning.
But if, instead of the eight lectures, I had given fourteen, I would
have been concerned that the subject matter be properly assimilated.
Then let us stay with what we have now received as a stimulus.
 Dear Herr Doctor, I know that I speak for everyone when I express
our heartfelt thanks to you at the close of these lectures. Once again
you have cast light on so many questions which we all carried within
us, and given us much stimulus, that we see a great but completely unconstrained
work before us. It is a great joy especially today to be allowed to
express our thanks.
Dr Steiner. Thank
you very much. I have intentionally not asked for questions because
I think the material needs to be worked through and in the course of
time there will be many opportunities where the one or other question
can be dealt with. Very little comes when questions are asked after
the first hearing, and everything becomes hurried and mixed up.