1. Carolingian and Hohenstaufen
dynasties marked by the struggle between Empire and
2. A French bishop,
Clement V, is elected to the papal throne. The papal court
transferred to Avignon 1309. Beginning of the
3. Knights Templar.
Founded 1118 by Hugues de Payen to protect pilgrims on
their way to the Holy Sepulchre. After their defeat at Acre
1291 they took refuge in Cyprus. The order was denounced
1307 by the Inquisition; their property was sequestrated.
The Templars were arrested and most, including the leader,
Jacques Molay, tortured and burnt. Papal Bull 1312
suppressed the Order.
4. Mongol invasions.
After destroying the power of China and Islam in Central
Asia, the armies of Chingis Khan (1167–1227) advanced
through Georgia, overran the Ukraine and the Crimea and
destroyed three Russian armies (1222–3). A renewed
invasion of Russia began in 1237 under Ögödei.
The Mongols captured Moscow, Rostov, Yaroslavl and
destroyed the army of the Grand Duke. In 1240 they advanced
towards Poland and Hungary and reached Pesth. Another army
overran Lithuania and East Prussia. Archduke Henry of
Silesia was defeated at Liegnitz by a force under Kaidu and
in 1241 all Hungary fell to the Mongols. The death of
Ögödei in 1241 saved Western Europe from further
invasion. A full account will be found in The
Mongols by E. D. Phillips, Thames & Hudson, 1969.
Also, The Mongols and Russia by G. Vernadsky,
5. H. T. Buckle
(1822–62) English historian. His chief work was the
History of Civilisation in England
(1857–61). He saw in the law of causality the
determining factor in history. Freidrich Ratzel
(1844–1904). Geographer and professor in Munich and
6. Ernst von
Wildenbruch (1845–1909). Author of historical dramas
Die Karolinger 1881, Die Quitzows 1888,
etcetera. Filled with a sense of priestly mission. His
plays are patriotic, rhetorical and rely upon stage
effects. ‘He was capable of raising a storm to put
out a night light!’
7. Ottokar II
(1253–78), King of Bohemia, was compelled to
surrender Austria, Styria and Carinthia to Rudolf of
Hapsburg. He refused to recognize the validity of Rudolf's
election as emperor and was defeated and mortally wounded
at the battle of Marchfeld 1278.
8. Osmanlis or
Ottomans, a western Turkish race named after their leader
Osman I or Ottoman (d. 1326) who founded the Turkish empire
by conquering western Asia Minor. A nomadic people.
9. Council of
Constance (1414–18). John Hus was summoned to defend
himself before the Church authorities against the charge of
heresy. Refused to recant and was convicted and burnt.
10. Defenestration of
Prague 1618. Protestant meetings prohibited by Imperial
decree. Calvinists invaded the Hradschin Palace in Prague
and threw the Imperial regents, Martinitz and Slavata,
together with their secretary, Fabricius, out of the window
on to the courtyard fifty feet below. A Bohemian rebellion
now became inevitable.
11. Peace of
Westphalia 1648. Religious clauses a return to the Peace of
Augsburg 1565 — ‘cujus regio, ejus
religio’. Territorial and political implications of
the treaty of great significance in European history.
12. James I of
England or James VI of Scotland aptly described by Henry IV
of Navarre and Sully as the ‘wisest fool in
1. Stephen I
(992–1038) King of Hungary, patron saint of Hungary.
He brought Hungary into the orbit of Western Culture. The
‘sacred crown’ is now in America.
2. Novalis (Friedrich
von Hardenberg) (1772–1802). His unfinished novel
Heinrich von Ofterdingen 1802 is an allegory of
Novalis' spiritual life and was the representative novel of
3. Richard Cobden
(1804–54) and John Bright (1811–89), leaders of
‘Manchesterism’, the school of radical free
4. German liberalism.
In 1848 the German liberals attempted to establish a
constitutional state and the National Assembly offered the
crown to Frederick William IV who refused to meet liberal
demands. Later the movement split into moderates and
radicals (the German Progressive Party). Finally the
National Liberals supported Bismarck's anti-clericalism and
imperialism. By the end of the century liberalism was a
Lassalle (1823–64), architect of the German labour
movement. In his ‘Open letter’ 1863 he urged
the proletariat to form an independent political party.
Founder and president of the ‘General Association of
materialist conception of history starts from the principle
that production, and with production the exchange of its
products, is the basis of every social order ... the
ultimate causes of all social change and political
revolutions are to be sought not in the minds of men ... but
in changes in the mode of production and exchange’
(Marx: Anti-Dühring). ‘The mode of
production of the material means of existence conditions
the whole process of social, political and intellectual
life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines
their existence, but it is their social existence which
determines their consciousness’ (Marx: Preface to the
Critique of Political Economy). ‘The
division of labour implies from the outset the division of
the conditions of labour, of tools and materials and thus
the splitting up of accumulated capital among different
owners, and thus, the division between capital and labour,
and the different forms of property itself’ (Marx on
the class war in The German Ideology).
Jean Soret (1795–1865). Scientist and author. A
frequent visitor in Goethe's house. Notes from his journal
were used by Eckermann for his ‘Conversations with
1. The Austrian
Minister was Dr. Giskra (1820–79).
2. Oskar Hertwig
(1849–1922). Director of the Anatomical-biological
Institute in Berlin (1888–1921). Author of works on
biology, zoology. Rejected Darwin's theory of sexual
1. E. Horneffer (b.
1871). A disciple of Nietzsche, professor in Giessen.
Emphasized pedagogic value of Graeco-Roman culture.
1. Count Leopald von
Kalkreuth (1855–1928). Landscape and portrait
painter. Professor at the Weimar Art School,
2. W. Scherer
(1841–86). Pioneer of philological approach to the
study of literature. Professor of German languages,
3. H. von Treitsche
(1834–96). Historiographer of the Prussian state. A
Patriot and nationalist. Published the Preussische
4. R. Strauss
(1864–1949). Director State Opera, Vienna, 1918.
Famous for Choral works, Lieder, chamber music, ballet and
5. Waldemar von
Biedermann (1817–1903). Goethe scholar. Edited a
collection of Goethe's Gespräche
(1889–96) 10 vols.
Frieherr von Rheinbaben (1855–1921). 1901–9,
Prussian Finance Minister; 1913–21, President of the Goethe
7. Eduard von
Hartmann (1842–1906). Philosophie des
Unbewussten, 1869. See Rudolf Steiner's
Riddles of Philosophy,
Part II and his
Briefe, Vol II, 1953.
Graf Kessler (1868–1937); K. Breysig
9. Benjamin Tucker
published in America a periodical: Liberty, the Pioneer
Organ of Anarchism. J. H. Mackay (1864–1933).
Belonged to the literary Bohemia of Berlin. Popularized
‘individual anarchism’, cf. his novel Die
Anarchisten, 1891. The hero is the mouthpiece of the
author. An aggressive socialist. Dealt with in detail in R.
Steiner's Gesammelte Aufästze zur
10. About the
expression: ‘vain self-praise stinks’ Goethe
commented: ‘That may be; but the public has no nose
for the smell of others' unjust criticism.’
(1859–1935). Jewish officer falsely accused of
treason and transported to Devil's Island. Rehabilitated
12. W. Bölsche
(1862–1939). Disciple of Zola; tried to link poetry
and science. Scientific popularisor. Best known for Das
Liebesleben in der Natur, 3 vols.
13. O. E. Hartleben
(1864–1905). Dramatist, novelist and lyric poet.
Attacked moral conventions and believed in the free
14. M. Halbe
(1865–1944). Dramatist and novelist. Nostalgia for
lost youth, attachment to homeland, W. Prussia. (See R.
Steiner's Gesammelte Aufsätze zur
15. Rosa Luxemburg
(1870–1919). Radical Socialist, worked for overthrow
of existing regime. Opposed to war 1914. Author of
‘Spartakus’ letters 1916. Drafted programme of
newly formed Communist party 1918. With K. Liebknecht
fomented Spartakus rebellion, January, 1919. Finally shot
by counter revolutionaries.
16. Theodor Herzka
(1845–1924). National economist. Wished to establish
settlement co-operatives in various countries, e.g. Africa,
and to redistribute land in order to break the monopoly of
1. R. Hamerling
(1830–89). Early work lyrical poems.
Homunculus (1888) attacked the soullessness of the
epoch. Philosophy opposed to monism and pessimism.
2. The Gymnasium
prepared pupils for the Abitur and the University. Main
subjects Greek and Latin; two foreign languages, usually
French and English, included in the curriculum.
Here emphasis an Mathematics and Natural Sciences. This
type of school had a vocational bias.
3. Leitha and
Leithania. The Leitha a tributory of the Danube. Up till
1918 formed the frontier between Austria and Hungary. The
Austrian half of the Empire called Cis-Leithania, the
Hungarian half, Trans-Leithania. See The Hapsburg
Empire by C. S. Macartney, 1968.
4. Redemptorists. St.
Alfonso de Liguori (1696–1787) founded the
Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer. Members of this
congregation called Redemptionists. Undertook missionary
work in the dioceses around Naples, heard confession and
supervised schools. St. Alfonso beatified 1816 and
5. The ‘Reich
German’ refers to the German who was born and lived
in Imperial Germany pre-1918.
6. John Calvin
(1509–64). Founded the theological academy in Geneva.
Taught doctrine of predestination. Ulrich Zwingli
(1484–1531). Head of the Reformed Church in
Switzerland. Killed in the Confessional war between
Zürich and the five Cantons.
7. Gottfried Herder
(1744–1807). A seminal influence in theology,
history, philosophy and pedagogy. Friend of Goethe. See any
history of German literature.
8. Karl von
Linnä or Linnaeus (1707–78). Swedish naturalist.
Inventor of artificial system of plant classification.
9. Gustav Stresemann
(1878–1929). National liberal politician. Post-1918
advocated a policy of reconciliation. Chancellor 1923.
Foreign Minister 1923–9. Nobel Peace Prize 1926.
10. K. J.
Schröer (1825–1900). Literary historian.
Professor of history of literature at the Technische
Hochschule in Vienna. Teacher of R. Steiner. See latter's
Course of my Life.
R. Eucken (1846–1929). Professor of Philosophy, Jena.
Pioneer of idealist metaphysics.
(1859–1941). Professor at Collge de France. Famous
for his book Creative Evolution and the idea of
the elan vital as the fundamental stuff of the
12. Thomas Woodrow
Wilson (1856–1924). Professor of Jurisprudence and
Political Economy. President U.S.A. 1912–20. Author of the
‘Fourteen Points’ as basis for peace 1918. Idea
of a ‘League of Nations’ stemmed from him; also
of a world government to prevent future wars.
(815–869). Patriarch of Constantinople and author of
the great schism between the Orthodox Church and the Church
of Rome. This schism finally centred on the
‘filioque’ controversy. The Western Church
added filioque (‘and the Son’) to the
Constantinopolitan Creed, the so called double Procession
of the Holy Ghost. Photius refused the insertion of
filioque in the Nicene Creed. The Orthodox Church sees in
Photius the champion of their cause against Rome. The
addition of filioque became a dogma of the Roman Church in
the fourth Lateran Council 1215.
Loyola(1491–1556). Wounded at siege of Pamplona 1521
and during convalescence read devotional books. 1522
retired to Manresa, devoted himself to prayer and
meditation. Sketched the fundamentals of the Spiritual
Exercises. Took the monastic vows, gathered a few
companions (e.g. Francis Xavier, Peter Favre) who became
nucleus of the Society of Jesus. The Spiritual Exercises is
a book of devotion and a training manual. Approved by Pope
Paul 1540. Loyola beatified 1609, canonized 1622. See R.
Fülop Müller, Power and Secrets of the Jesuits,
1930; Father J. Brodrick, The Origin of the Jesuits, 1940;
and Ignatius Loyola, the Pilgrim rears, 1956.
3. Zwingli and Calvin
— see notes to Lecture VI.
Schwenkfeld (1489–1561). An Evangelical sectarian.
His followers formed communities in Silesia and
A Christian sect of the Reformation which rejected infant
baptism and believed in the establishment of the Kingdom of
God on earth. Associated with the peasant revolts in Saxony
1521. Leaders executed, banished or expelled.
4. Vladimir Solovieff
(1853–1900). Russian theologian, philosopher and
poet. His philosophy has a profound mystical quality.
Opposed to Slavophil nationalism and the despotic state.
See N. Berdyaev, The Russian Idea, 1947. (This
book useful on the interpretation of the Russian make-up,
cf. Lecture I of this course); N. L. Lossky, History of
Russian Philosophy, 1953.
Baumgartner (1841–1910). Catholic literary
historian. Member of the Jesuit Order. His book
Goethe 1885 emphasizes the Catholic point of
Henry Lewes (1871–78). Best known for the Life
and Works of Goethe, 2 voll, 1855.
1. Arianism and
Athanasianism. The doctrinal conflict between Arius
(250–336) and Athanasius (d. 373) arose over the
question of the divine Sonship of Christ. Arius maintained
the Son was not God, that He was not of divine substance
and not eternal, but a creation ‘begotten of
God’. Athanasius defended the Godhead of the Son.
Christ was truly the Son and truly God. Arianism remained
the official religion of the eastern halfof the Roman
Empire down to 378. The Athanasian doctrine, accepted by
the Western Church at first, rejected by the Council of
Antioch 341, but later supported by emporers Constantine II
and Constans. The victory of the Nicene doctrine assured by
the support of the Church Fathers, Basil of Caesarea,
Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa. The second
Council of Constantinople 381 confirmed the Nicene faith
and in 383 Arianism was proscribed. See Hastings
Encyclopedia of Religion.
2. Ulfilas, the
Teutons and the Heliand. The migrations of the early
Christian era led to tribal groupings. The Teutonic tribes
(Germanic peoples or Germans) were composed of N. Teutons,
E. Teutons (Goths, Vandals and Burgundians) and W. Teutons
(Franks, Saxons, Langobards).
‘Migration of the Peoples’ (375–568) led
to attacks upon the frontiers of the Roman Empire.
Wulfila (310–383). A Visigothic bishop; translated
part of the Bible into Gothic. (Codex Argenteus at
Uppsala.) Major influence in conversion of Visigoths to
Kingdom in Italy lasted from 568–772.
Clovis d. 511
captured Gaul for the Arian Visigoths. Was baptized 496,
established a Frankish national church and so won support
for Roman Catholicism.
Great overthrew the Langobards, Frisians and Saxons and
united Germany under a single ruler. He was crowned in St.
Peters 800 by Pope Leo III. The alliance of the Papacy and
the Carolingians ensured the victory of Catholic
influences in the diffusion of Christianity were the
monasteries, poetic works such as the Muspilli (830), the
Heliand (circa 830) in which Christ is portrayed as King
and warrior, his disciples as vassals. The purpose of the
poem was frankly didactic. (This complicated period of
history should be studied in some standard work.)
Aufklärung or Enlightenment. A rationalist
movement originating in England and associated with the
names of Locke, Hobbes, Hume and Newton; in France with
Voltaire and the Encyclopedists; in Germany with Lessing,
Wolff, Nicolai and Kant. ‘Sapere aude’ said
Kant — dare to be wise, have the courage to use your
reason. See Kant, Was ist Aufklärung?
4. Lord Herbert of
Cherbury (1583–1648) was called the ‘father of
deism’. The five propositions in De Veritate
1624 were tenets of ‘natural religion’. He
wished to show that Christianity and its doctrines were
5. John Locke
(1632–1704). In philosophy an empiricist; forerunner
of the Enlightenment. See An Essay Concerning Human
(1588–1679). Philosopher: mathematicalmechanical
conception of nature. Universe and man envisaged as complex
machines. Politically, he looked to enlightened despotism;
cf. Leviathan, 1651.
6. A. van Harnack
(1851–1930). Protestant theologian and exegete;
leading patristic scholar of the nineteenth century. Chief
of the liberal Ritschl school of theology. Followed
scientific-historical method, emphasis on ‘source
study’. History of Dogma, 7 vols.; What is
7. M. A. Bakunin
(1814–76). Russian revolutionary and anarchist.
Co-founder of the first International.
8. The Old Catholics.
Party of reform in the R. C. Church who rejected the
doctrine of papal infallibility and of Immaculate
Conception. Movement founded by Döllinger in Munich
9. Paul Ernst
(1866–1933). Neo-classic poet, novelist and
dramatist. Strove to unite classical form and modern
thought; cf. Der Weg zur Form, 1906. Wrote books
connected with the war and its aftermath, Der
Zusammenbruch des deutschen Idealismus, 1920.