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Awakening Anthroposophy
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[ Notes: Materialism/Anthroposophy ]



Lecture I

  1. See Rudolf Steiner, An Outline of Occult Science, Anthroposophic Press, Spring Valley, NY, 1972.

  2. See lecture of March 21, 1921 (in GA 324), where a more detailed description is given, also in regard to the conclusions.

  3. Meeting of the Giordano-Bruno Society in Berlin: Date and title of this lecture could not be ascertained. Concerning this society, see Rudolf Steiner, The Course of My Life, chapter XXIX; Anthroposophic Press, NY, 1970.

  4. Johann Friedrich Herbart, 1776–1841; German philosopher, psychologist and educator.

  5. Moritz Benedikt, 1835–1920; Criminal psychologist. See Moritz Benedikt, Aus meinem Leben. Erinnerungen and Eroerterungen; Vienna 1906, vol. III, p. 315.


Lecture II

  1. Reference to lectures of the Second Course of the School for Spiritual Science.

  2. The threefold human organism was first mentioned by Rudolf Steiner in Von Seelenraetseln, GA 21. (The Case for Anthroposophy)

  3. Concerning Imagination, Inspiration, and Intuition, three forms of higher perception, see Rudolf Steiner, An Outline of Occult Science, chapter: “Knowledge of Higher Worlds”; Anthroposophic Press, Spring Valley, NY, 1972.


Lecture III

  1. The participants of the second course of the School for Spiritual Science.

  2. Anaxagoras, around 500–428 B.C., Greek philosopher. See Rudolf Steiner, Riddles of Philosophy, Anthroposophic Press, New York, 1973.

  3. A retired Major General, Gerold von Gleich emerged as an opponent of Rudolf Steiner in 1921/22 with his lectures that also appeared as brochures and contained an abundance of untruths and distortions of facts.

  4. Origen, around A.D. 185–254, Greek Church writer. Compare also the lecture of June 2, 1921 (Lecture XV in this volume) and note 4 to Lecture XV.

  5. Scotus Erigena, around A.D. 810–877, Irish philosopher and theologian at the court of Charles the Bald in Paris. See Rudolf Steiner, Riddles of Philosophy.

  6. De divisione naturae. See the detailed discussion of this work in the lectures of June 2 and June 3, 1921, in this volume (Lectures XV and XVI).

  7. It could not be ascertained which one among the numerous theologians who were active opponents of Rudolf Steiner at that time was being referred to.


Lecture IV

  1. Aurelius Augustinus, A.D. 354–430, Church Father and philosopher. See Rudolf Steiner, Christianity as Mystical Fact and the Mysteries of Antiquity, Rudolf Steiner Press, London, 1972.

  2. Hippocrates, 460–377 B.C., founder of Greek medicine. Explained illnesses as results of faulty mixture of four body fluids: blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile.

  3. Mithras: Persian-Indian cult of Mithras, the god of light and sun, spread through Europe in first century B.C. by Roman troops. Celebrations in underground caves, knew baptism, communion, celebration of birthday of the god on December 25.

  4. Arianism, teachings of the presbyter Arius of Alexandria (died A.D. 336), who rejected the idea that Christ's being was identical with the being of God the Father.

  5. Ulfilas (Wulfila in Germanic), A.D. 311–383, missionary to the West-Goths in the Balcan region; founder of Arianic-Germanic Christendom, who translated the Bible into Gothic.

  6. Dionysius the Areopagite, member of the Areopagus in Athens, around A.D. 500. Converted by Paul (Acts 17:34). Connected Christianity with neo-Platonic philosophy. Also compare with Lecture XV of June 2, 1921, in this volume.

  7. Constantine I., the Great, A.D. 286 or 287–337. Roman emperor from 306 to 337, made Christianity the state religion in 324.

  8. Justinian I, A.D. 483–565, Byzantine emperor from A.D. 527–565, builder of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. In A.D. 529, he closed the Platonic Academy of Athens.

  9. Basilius Valentinus, born around 1394, alchemist of the fifteenth century. His collected writings were first published in Hamburg by W. S. Lange in 1677.

  10. Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus of Hohenheim, 1493–1541. Concerning this great Swiss doctor and philosopher, see Rudolph Steiner: Eleven European Mystics, Rudolf Steiner Publications, New York, 1971.

  11. Jacob Boehme, 1575–1624, concerning the mysticism of the master shoemaker, see above book.


Lecture V

  1. Stoicism — philosophy and spiritual view of the Stoa (founded around 300 B.C. by Zeno).

    Epicureanism — teaching by Epicurus in the Philosophers' School of Athens, founded by him in 306 B.C.

    Both philosophical systems are mainly directed towards practical life, seeking “happiness” in it. The latter is understood to be a rational, moderate striving for self-control and spiritualization without negating nature. (The debauchery of the Epicureans belongs to a later age. )

  2. Concerning the reasons for this development, see also Rudolf Steiner, The Mission of the Individual Folk Souls in Relation to Teutonic Mythology, Rudolf Steiner Press, London, 1970; lecture of June 12, 1910.

  3. Homer, Odyssey, Song XI.

  4. See Friedrich Nietzsche, Die Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen, 1874.

  5. Thales of Milet, around 625–545 B.C.

  6. See Note 2, Lecture III.

  7. Heraclitus of Ephesus, around 535–475 B.C., Philosopher of the age preceding Socrates.

  8. Rudolf Steiner, Riddles of Philosophy, Anthroposophic Press, New York, 1973.

  9. Titurel, founder of the Grail-dynasty (grandfather of Herzeloide and great-grandfather of Parsifal) who erected the Temple of the Grail within 30 years. See Albrecht von Scharffenberg, who, continuing in the manner of Wolfram von Eschenbach, wrote “Juengerer Titurel” between 1270 and 1280.

  10. Scholasticism: medieval philosophy attempting to justify Christian faith through reason. Based itself on Aristotelian philosophy.

  11. Wolfram von Eschenbach, around 1170–1220, Medieval epic writer. Poet of Parsifal (1210), a novel in verses, as well as Willehalm and a fragment, Titurel.

  12. Gottfried of Bouillon, around 1060–1100, leader of the first Crusade in 1096.

  13. Peter of Amiens, around 1050–1115, Augustine prior who moved through France and summoned people to the Crusade; later, he joined Gottfried of Bouillon.

  14. See Rudolf Steiner: Gesammelte Aufsaetze zur Kulturgeschichte, Bibl. #31, 1966. Not translated.

  15. An Outline of Occult Science, chapter VI: “The Present and Future of Cosmic and Human Evolution.”


Lecture VI

  1. Heiland, (meaning “Heiland” or “Savior”), ancient Saxon poetical Gospel work from around A.D. 830.

  2. Reference to the overall tendency of descriptions of Jesus at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries.

  3. Vladimir Soloviev, 1853–1900, Russian philosopher and poet.

  4. Reference to the first Waldorf School, established in Stuttgart in 1919, and the first Goetheanum.

  5. Gleich completed his lecture of April 6, 1921, in Stuttgart with a quote from a song by Martin Luther. On the day before, a Jesuit, Sorel, had recommended that people attend this lecture.


Lecture VII

  1. This refers to a petition by the German government, sent to the President of the United States, “to assume the mediation in regard to the question of reparations and to determine the sum which Germany is supposed to pay to the allied powers.” At the same time, it included "the urgent request to bring about agreement among the Allies for such a mediation. The undersigned solemnly declare that the German government is ready and willing without restriction or reservations to pay the allied powers that amount of reparation deemed fitting and suitable by the President of the United States after a thorough investigation. (News report of the Wolf Agency on April 22, 1921. Evening edition of Nationalzeitung Basel, April 22, 1921.)

  2. See lecture of April 2 in this volume (Lecture I)

  3. Friedrich Nietzsche, 1844–1900. See Rudolf Steiner, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fighter for Freedom (RSE 473); Rudolf Steiner Publications, New Jersey, 1960.

  4. Aeschylus, 525–456 B.C.; Sophocles, 496–406 B.C. The first famous poets of tragedy in the flowering of Greek culture.

  5. Socrates, 470–399 B.C., Greek philosopher, teacher of Plato and the main discussion-partner in the latter's dialogues.

  6. Richard Wagner, 1813–1883, German opera composer. Composed Ring of the Nibelungs.

  7. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, 1848–1931, professor of classic philology, at the end in Berlin. Author of Zukunftsphilologie. Eine Erwiderung auf Friedrich NietzschesGeburt der Tragoedie” (“Philology of the Future. A Rebuttal of Friedrich Nietzsche's ‘Birth of Tragedy’ ”), Berlin, 1872.

  8. Unzeitgemaesse Betrachtungen by Friedrich Nietzsche, written between 1873 and 1876. They contain: 1. David Strauss, der Bekenner und der Schriftsteller (“David Strauss, Confessor and Writer”); 2. Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Historie fuer das Leben (“The Use and Abuse of History for Life”); 3. Schopenhauer als Erzieher (“Schopenhauer as Educator”); 4. Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. Friedrich Nietzsche, Works in 3 Volumes, published by Karl Schlechta. Munich 1954–56, vol. 1, p. 135–434.

  9. David Friedrich Strauss, 1818–1874, theologian and author. Der alte und der neue Glaube. Ein Bekenntnis (“The Old and the New Faith. A Confession”), Leipzig 1872.

  10. Karl von Rotteck, 1775–1840. Allgemeine Geschichte (“General History”), 6 volumes, 1813–1818.

  11. Lujo Brentano, 1844–1931, political economist.

  12. Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner in Bayreuth, texts and outlines, 1872–1876; Complete works, vol. X, published by C. G. Naumann, Leipzig, 1896, p. 395–425.

  13. Arthur Schopenhauer, 1788–1860, German philosopher.

  14. Friedrich von Savigny, 1779–1861, historian of law.

  15. Leopold von Ranke, 1795–1886, historian.

  16. Francois de Voltaire (actually d'Arouet), 1694–1778, French philosopher of the Enlightenment.

  17. Nietzsche's Works vol. VIII, published by C. G. Naumann, Leipzig 1896, p. 355–56. The Poem, “Vereinsamt” (“Desolate”) is followed by the poem, “Antwort” (“Reply”), to which reference is made here. It goes:

    Dass Gott erbarm'!
    Der meint, ich sehnte mich zurueck
    Ins deutsche Warm,
    Ins dumpfe deutsche Stubenglueck!

    Mein Freund, was hier
    Mich hemmt und haelt, ist dein Verstand
    Mitleid mit dir!
    Mitleid mit deutschem Quer-Verstand!

    (May God have pity!
    He thinks I long to return
    To German warmth,
    Into dull German happiness of mundane homes!

    My friend, what hampers, holds me here
    Is your reason,
    Pity for you!
    Pity for German perverse reason!)

  18. See Friedrich Nietzsche: Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra), 1882; Edition: Schlechta vol. II, p. 177–562.

  19. Adolf von Harnack, 1851–1930, Protestant theologian. Das Wesen des Christentums (“The Nature of Christianity”). Sixteen Lectures at the University of Berlin, Leipzig, 1910.

  20. Der Antichrist. Fluch auf das Christentum (“The Antichrist. Curse on Christianity”), 1888 Edition: Schlechta vol. II, p. 1161–1236.

  21. Franz Overbeck, 1837–1905. Veber die Christlichkeit unserer heutigen Theologie (“Concerning the Christian Nature of Modern Theology”), 1873.

  22. See in Also sprach Zarathustra, part II. Edition: Schlechta vol. II, p. 382.

  23. See lecture of April 17,1921 in this volume (Lecture VI).

  24. The name of this magazine could not be determined.

  25. See Rudolf Steiner's Mystery Drama, The Soul's Awakening, in Four Mystery Plays, Steiner Book Centre, Toronto, 1973.


Lecture VIII

  1. Rudolf Steiner: Theosophy: An Introduction to the Supersensible Knowledge of the World and the Destination of Man. Rudolf Steiner Press, London, 1973. RSE 592.

  2. “Il Sposalizio”, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milano. Raphael, 1483–1520, Italian painter.


Lecture IX

  1. Johannes Scotus Erigena, A.D. 810–877, Irish philosopher of scholasticism in Paris.

  2. Council of 869: See Johannes Geyer, “Ein Konzilbeschluss and seine kulturgeschichtlichen Folgen” in Die Drei, vol. X (1922) and Alfred Schuetze, “Das Konzil 869 zu Konstantinopel and die Verleugnung des Geistes” in Die Christengemeinschaft, vol. I and II.

  3. Soma drink (Sanscrit): The fermented juice of the soma plant, a leafless vine (sarcostemma acidum), mixed with milk or barley, whose intoxicating and enthusing power was worshipped as the God, “Soma.” Concerning the occult significance of “Soma” see also H. P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, vol. I and II.

  4. Eucharist-Dispute: The dogma of the Transubstantiation, the transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ (Fourth Lateran Council, A.D. 1215), was rejected by the Reformation.

  5. Johannes Hus: around 1370–1415, early Czech reformer from Bohemia, banned by the Church in 1410 and burned as a heretic in 1415.

  6. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz, 1646–1716, German philosopher.

  7. “Die Tat” — Monthly Magazine for the Future of German Culture. VIII, 1921, vol. 1.

  8. Oswald Spengler, 1880–1936, German philosopher of culture.


Lecture X

  1. “Bolshevism” in pamphlets of Stimmen der Zeit (“Voices of the Times”), 6, 3rd edition Freiburg i. Br., 1919 by Bernhard Duhr, S. J. (1852–1930), historian.

  2. Charles Darwin, 1809–1882, natural scientist.

  3. Karl Marx, 1818–1883.

  4. Gustav Theodor Fechner, 180–1887, natural scientist and philosopher.

  5. Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1824–1887, physicist.

  6. Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, 1811–1899, chemist.


Lecture XI

  1. Francois de Voltaire (actually d'Arouet), 1694–1778, French philosopher of the Enlightenment.

  2. Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1712–1778, French philosopher and pedagogue.

  3. Congress of Verona: Congress of the “Holy Alliance” (1822) to which all the European powers belonged with the exception of England and the Vatican. Under Metternich, it pursued a clearly reactionary course.

  4. Johann Gottlieb Fichte, 1762–1814, German philosopher.

  5. Hermann Grimm, 1828–1901, German art historian and literary critic.


Lecture XII

  1. Joseph-Marie Comte de Maistre, 1753–1821, French diplomat and political theoretician.

  2. Augustine, 354–430, neo-Platonist, Church Father. Converted to Christianity in 387, Bishop of North Africa. Wrote City of God, Confessions, among other books.

  3. “Considerations sur la France,” London, 1796; “Essai sur le principe generateur des constitutions politiques,” Petersburg, 1810; "Du pape," Lyon, 1819.

  4. Plutarch, around A.D. 125, from Chaironea. Greek philosopher and historian of the Roman-Hellenistic age.

  5. Joseph de Maistre, Les soirees de St. Petersbourg, 1821, or “Twilight Conversations in St. Petersburg, Discourses About the Reign of Divine Providence in Temporal Matters,” with an appendix: “Explanations Concerning the Sacrifices.”

  6. Ignatius of Loyola, 1491–1556, founder of the Jesuit Order, canonized in 1622.

  7. Alfonso Maria di Liguori, 1696–1787, founder of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, canonized in 1839.

  8. Francis Xaverius, 1506–1552, Jesuit; missionary to India and Japan.

  9. John Locke, 1632–1704, English philosopher of the Enlightenment.

  10. Jaques Benigne Bossuet, 1627–1704, French theologian and Church politician.

  11. Voltaire, actually Francois-Marie Arouet, 1694–1778, French theologian and philosopher of the Enlightenment.

  12. Madame De Sevigne's remark concerning an Italian writer: See de Maistre's Les soirees de St. Petersbourg, vol. 1, p. 413. Concerning his discourse about Locke, see the whole sixth conversation in Les Soirees, vol. 1, p. 337–430.

  13. Jonathan Swift, 1667–1745, Dublin, English writer and satirist.

  14. See note 5.

  15. Leon Gambetta, 1838–1882, French statesman and republican. Remark from a speech on May 4, 1877.

  16. Commune: Socialistic-Communistic community council that ruled over Paris for several months following the armistice of 1871 with Germany. The movement was bloodily defeated in May of 1871.

  17. Boulangism: George Boulanger, 1837–1891, French general and monarchist.

  18. Alfred Dreyfuss, 1859–1935, French officer, banished in 1894 for alleged high treason, pardoned in 1899. The Dreyfuss affair gave rise to consolidation of the political Left in France.

  19. Richard Cobden, 1804–1865, and John Bright, 1811–1889, adherents of free trade, brought about abolition of the grain tariff, which, along with other factors, brought about England's industrial advancement.

  20. Herbert, Earl of Oxford and Asquith, 1852–1928, liberal British Prime Minister in 1914; Edward Grey, 1862–1923, British Foreign Minister in 1914, belonging to the imperialistic faction of the Liberals.

  21. Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, 1804–1881, British Prime Minister from 1868 until 1880.

  22. Baron George Cuvier, 1769–1832, and Geoffroy de St.-Hilaire, 1772–1844, French natural scientists. See Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe, part 3, conversation of August 2, 1830 (the quote is not verbatim).

  23. August Weissmann, 1834–1914, zoologist.

  24. Ernst Haeckel, 1834–1919, natural scientist.


Lecture XIV

  1. Lectures of May 6, 7, and 8, 1921 in Colour, RSE 623, Rudolf Steiner Press, London, 1977.


Lecture XV

  1. Johannes Scotus Erigena, 810–877, Irish philosopher of scholasticism in Paris.

  2. Charles the Bald, 828–877, king of the Franconians, emperor from 875–877.

  3. Dionysius the Areopagite: connected Christianity with neo-Platonic philosophy. Had strong influence on medieval mysticism.

  4. Origen, around 185–254, Greek Church Father in Alexandria, later presbyter in Caesarea; basis of his philosophical theology: De principiis (“Peri archon”). Under Justinian I, during the fifth ecumenical council in Constantinople in 553, his teachings were condemned as heretical.

  5. After the Church had forbidden the reading of Scotus Erigena's texts, all editions were ordered burned in 1225.

  6. These words are reported by Plato in Timaios, 22 B.C.


Lecture XVI

  1. Publius Cornelius Tacitus, around A.D. 55 until 120, Roman historian and consul. His work, De origine et situ germanorum, is the oldest surviving source concerning the geography and ethnography of the Germanic peoples.

  2. Contained in Die Naturwissenschaft und die weltgeschichtliche Entwicklung der Menschheit seit dem Altertum, six lectures, 1921. GA 325, 1969.

  3. Oswald Spengler, 1880–1936, philosopher of history and culture.

  4. Eduard Suess, 1831–1914, geologist. Das Antlitz der Erde, 3 vol., 1885–1909.


Lecture XVII

  1. Hippocrates, 460–377 B.C., known already in antiquity as the greatest physician.

    Phidias, 500–435 B.C., Greek sculptor in Athens, master of classical style.

    Plato, 427–347 B.C., Greek philosopher, pupil of Socrates.

    Socrates, 470–399 B.C., moral philosopher in Athens, developed Socratic dialog to teach his students to think for themselves.

  2. Galen, A.D. 129–199, outstanding physician in the days of the Roman emperors; personal physician to Marc Aurel. In his writings, he tried to compile all medical knowledge of antiquity.

  3. Julian Apostate, A.D. 332–363, nephew of Constantine the Great, Roman emperor from A.D. 361–363.

  4. Constantine I., the Great, A.D. 288–337, Roman Emperor from A.D. 306–337. Made Christianity the state religion in 324.

  5. Justinian I, see note 8, Lecture IV.

  6. “... to the king of the Persians ...”: Chosrau Nurshivan (king from A.D. 531–580) invited the sages from all over the world, particularly those versed in medicine, to Persia. He is frequently considered the founder of the academy of Gondishapur.

  7. Zeno the Isaurian, A.D. 426–491, Byzantine emperor from A.D. 474–491, closed the school of philosophers in Edessa in 487.

  8. Gondishapur (Djundaisabur), city founded by the king of the Sassanides, Shapur I (242–272). It was the cultural center of the kingdom for a long period.

  9. Ibn Sina Avicenna, 980–1037, Persian philosopher and physician, author of over 100 books.

  10. Ibn Roshd Averroes, 1126–1198, Arabian philosopher and universal scientist. Physician from Cordova. Following Aristotelianism, he attempted to combine philosophy and faith. His rational faith led to his banishment.

  11. Roger Bacon, around 1216–1294, English Franciscan, called doctor mirabilis on account of his comprehensive knowledge. He included natural scientific perceptions in his theological manner of thought.

  12. See note 2 to Lecture XVI.

[ Notes: Materialism/Anthroposophy ]

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