GUIDE TO CONTENTS
Anthroposophical Education based on a knowledge of
man. Theoretical knowledge fails in life, as illustrated in
business affairs and medicine. External educational psychology
does not understand the living child. Love the first essential
in education. Child descends from spiritual worlds by divine
grace. Cleverness of modern education programmes. No programme
in Waldorf School, only teachers and children. Relation between
the physical and the soul-spiritual in childhood differs from
that in adult. Old age in early epochs. Maturation regresses in
history. Greek relation to sculpture. Genius in childhood.
Teacher compared to a gardener.
Experiences in childhood may not produce their effects
till the fifties. Need to understand effect of experience in spiritual
world exemplified by Goethe and Schiller. Goethe's difficulty
in entering body, but his subsequent good health and good
looks. Long trunk and short legs a sign of harmonious
adaptation to the body. Productive power in the middle of
Goethe's life. Schiller's disharmony with his body. His ugly
head, long legs, and weak rhythmic system, leading to cramps.
All this due to stoppages in the fulfilment of karma. Similar
conditions illustrated in acquaintance of Steiner, who
also could not bring experience of spiritual world into
physical. He suffered from stutter and squint and died after
operation for the latter at 30. He would have had difficulty in
developing consciousness soul at 35. Schiller prevented from
finishing things by his cramp. The “Malteser” and
“Demetrius.” Mystery of his death. Importance of
listening to children's voices.
Importance of stages of childhood. Fine distinctions
necessary. Mother's milk mediates child into world into which he
grows in first seven years. Movement, gesture and imitation characterise
this period. Distinction in early movements. Speech arises from
movement. Vowels. Consonants. Religious devotion to world
reaches to the physical body. Environment affects child's
organism. The counting horse explained. After seven comes
feeling for coordination and for speech, which arises from
gesture. Authority of teacher vital. Teaching immortality
through the symbol of the butterfly. Letters to be introduced
as pictures. Two theories of origin of a speech. Outer and
inner harmonised in consonants and vowels. Examples of picture
letters. Realistic dolls condemned. “Study of Man”
at ten or eleven and its effect on modelling. Greek artists and
the model. Living teaching necessary. A question answered.
A question concerning imitation from a very young age.
Reflection of the three epochs of childhood in gesture, speaking,
thinking within the first epoch. Writing to be taught before reading
because more active. Etheric forces freed from body at change
of teeth; until then soul revealed in body. After this teaching
in pictures needed to develop etheric. Astral (within etheric)
works musically. Between 9th and 10th years the ego becomes
conscious, and teaching of outer world can begin with plants.
Plant never to be divorced from earth. The right treatment of
the soil. Abstractions of modern thought in connection with
speed of sound. Working of subconscious in child. Animals do
not belong to earth, like plants, but are exaggerations of
human form. Art for the etheric, music for the astral. The two
combined manifest in Eurythmy, which must supplement
Gymnastics. History and Geography to be taught pictorially till
twelfth year, when child first understands causation.
Explanation of child's so-called “animism.” Danger
of making all subjects “visual.” Need for children
to assimilate living concepts that grow. Dead concepts and
Importance of Teacher's Conference in Waldorf School.
Insight needed to determine whether a talent is healthy or unhealthy.
The super-sensible is revealed in physical body of child,
clairvoyance not needed. Example of a late developer.
Hamerling's difficulty with the German language. Special class
for children whose physical body does not release the
spiritual. Medical knowledge for teachers. Steiner's own
experience with hydrocephalic boy. Difference of classes where
boys or girls predominate. Reciprocal feeling between teachers
and children. The “main lesson” method and
versatility of the teachers. Promise in the rascal. Goodness
may be due to illness. Punishment. Qualifications for teachers.
A unified educational ideal described. Contrast in parallel
classes in Waldorf School. Behaviour of children at an
Meetings of parents and teachers. Teachers should
visit parents. Confidence of child in teacher begins to weaken
between 9th and 10th year. How to strengthen it. Stories from
the Gospels. Teacher is to read the book of the child. He
should be inspired by anthroposophy but not teach it. Children
should be kept in their own environment. Activities of children
should be real. Children's sense of colour. Eurythmy should
first be shown as an art, not as demonstrated by children.
Abstract definitions to be avoided. Joy of understanding later
in life what was learnt earlier. Experiencing good as pleasure
and bad as displeasure in middle epoch is true basis of
morality, 1st seven years, Gratitude; 2nd seven years, Love;
3rd seven years, Duty. Astral descends at puberty into physical
and etheric, but is already working in twelfth year. Every man
is bi-sexual, the male having female etheric body and vice
Anthroposophy sees spiritual world in concrete detail.
It sees the spiritual in the physical and the physical as manifesting
the spiritual. Treatment of pale child and over-red child
(a) by medicine and (b) by education through
right use of memory. The four temperaments. Advantage of
grouping children by temperament. Teacher to embody and use all
temperaments. Co-operation of school and home in matter of
diet. Melancholic child to have more sugar, sanguine child
less. Child of quick comprehension, who quickly forgets, may
need to eat less potato. Sugar consumption in England and
Russia. Effect of potato on intelligence in Europe. Deeper
grasp with less detail changed to quick and more superficial
intelligence. Coffee helps logical thoughts — for
writers. Tea produces fleeting thoughts — for diplomats.
Typical forms of carbohydrates, as seen through microscope,
appear in astral body of potato consumers. Modern divorce of
Art, Science and Religion. Supersensible sometimes allowed
today in art (Björnson) and appears in strange places.
Mystery Centres were places of unity of art, science and
religion, which uniting man needs again today.
The four kingdoms of nature. The etheric body re-models
physical in first seven years, but traces of the original model may
survive. All teachers should practise sculpture, which helps in
understanding etheric forces. Astral body fashioned out of
music. Ancient architecture formed musically. From Greek age
the mechanical and mathematical supplanted the musical.
First Goetheanum again formed musically. Through astral man's
body is a musical creation e.g. in breathing and blood
circulation. Ratio of breath and pulse was basis of ancient
poetry. The arm as formed by the musical scale. Singing and
instruments to be taught in first school years. Intellectual,
artistic and musical training needed for teachers to understand
physical, etheric and astral. Ego reveals itself in speech.
Differences of languages. Kopf and Testa. Example of form in
speech. Observation needed by teacher, not intellect. The class
and the individual child. History. Personalities and
description of customs from 10th to 12th years. Making time
spatially visible. Arithmetic to start with the whole.
Relation of teacher and pupil in ancient East. Waldorf
Education is for the whole man. Greek education based on the
Gymnast. Women today more mobile in thinking than men.
Greek thinking illustrated. Roman education less universal and
based on the Rhetorician. This education still found in
the mediaeval seven liberal arts, and even into Jesuit
training. Modern education since the Renaissance limited to the
intellect and its representative figure is the
Professor. A modern professor of “Eloquence”
who taught only archaeology. Abstract ideas in Marx of which
none saw the consequences. Modern finance impersonal and out of
touch with reality. Story of Rothschild and the ambassador.
Prime need of a teacher is not knowledge but the understanding
of man. Modern education destroys significance of world. Needed
— medical knowledge for teacher, educational knowledge
Thanks to organiser of the course. Spiritual revelation
in ancient Mysteries worked in practical life. The same principle
in new forms is possible today and is found in Waldorf
education. The situation of anthroposophy compared to the early
Christianity of the catacombs. The fate of the gnosis —
to be obliterated — must not befall anthroposophy.
The founding of Eurythmy and of the anthroposophical medical
and educational movements arose from human needs and human
personalities. The founding of the Waldorf School by Emil Molt
coincided with a moment of freedom. Religious teaching in the
Waldorf School. Its financial difficulties. It must be nurtured
by love. Request by the top class in the school for an
anthroposophical university. The problem of matriculation
interfering with the curriculum dealt with by adding a 13th
class. Progress or retrogression in civilisation depends on
education. Waldorf education can show how anthroposophy works
out of life.