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Rudolf Steiner Archive Section Name Rudolf Steiner Archive & e.Lib

Necessity and Freedom

Rudolf Steiner Archive & e.Lib Document

Sketch of Rudolf Steiner lecturing at the East-West Conference in Vienna.



Rudolf Steiner here illuminates the crucial questions of freedom and necessity, guilt and innocence from the perspective of his science of the spirit. He shows how necessity, arising out of the unchangeable past, works in our lives and in nature. “What was experienced at one time in freedom changes over time into necessity” — just as what was once subjective experience becomes over time an objective element of our being. Steiner demonstrates that only through acknowledging spiritual reality can we come to an understanding of necessity and to the possibility of conscious freedom in the present.

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During the last two decades of the nineteenth century the Austrian-born Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) became a respected and well-published scientific, literary, and philosophical scholar, particularly known for his work on Goethe's scientific writings. After the turn of the century, he began to develop his earlier philosophical principles into an approach to methodical research of psychological and spiritual phenomena.

His multi-faceted genius has led to innovative and holistic approaches in medicine, science, education (Waldorf schools), special education, philosophy, religion, economics, agriculture (Bio-Dynamic method), architecture, drama, the new art of eurythmy, and other fields. In 1924 he founded the General Anthroposophical Society, which today has branches throughout the world.

ISBN 0-88010-260-8 Anthroposophic Press

ISBN 0-85440-325-6 Rudolf Steiner Press

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